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Article Contents

ABSTRACT

1.ROLE OF OBSERVATIONS IN COSMOLOGY & GALAXY FORMATION
1.1.The Observational Renaissance
1.2.Observations Lead to Surprises
1.3.Recent Observational Milestones
1.4.Concordance Cosmology: Why is such a curious model acceptable?
1.5.Lecture Summary

2.GALAXIES & THE HUBBLE SEQUENCE
2.1.Introduction: Changing Paradigms of Galaxy Formation
2.2.Galaxy Morphology - Valuable Tool or Not?
2.3.Semi-Analytical Modeling
2.4.A Test Case: The Galaxy Luminosity Function
2.5.The Role of the Environment
2.6.The Importance of High Redshift Data
2.7.Lecture Summary

3.COSMIC STAR FORMATION HISTORIES
3.1.When Did Galaxies Form? Searches for Primeval Galaxies
3.2.Local Inventory of Stars
3.3.Diagnostics of Star Formation in Galaxies
3.4.Cosmic Star Formation - Observations
3.5.Cosmic Star Formation - Theory
3.6.Unifying the Various High Redshift Populations
3.7.Lecture Summary

4.STELLAR MASS ASSEMBLY
4.1.Motivation
4.2.Methods for Estimating Galaxy Masses
4.3.Results: Regular Galaxies 0 < z < 1.5
4.4.Stellar Masses from Multi-Color Photometry
4.5.Results: Stellar Mass Functions 0 < z < 1.5
4.6.Results: Stellar Mass Functions z > 1.5
4.7.Quiescent Galaxies with 2 < z < 3
4.8.Lecture Summary

5.WITNESSING THE END OF COSMIC REIONIZATION
5.1.Introduction - Some Weighty Questions
5.2.The Gunn-Peterson Test and SDSS QSOs
5.3.Metallicity of the High Redshift IGM
5.4.Linear Polarization in the WMAP Data
5.5.Stellar Mass Density at z appeq 5-6
5.6.Lecture Summary

6.INTO THE DARK AGES: LYMAN DROPOUTS
6.1.Motivation
6.2.Contamination in z appeq 6 Dropout Samples
6.3.Cosmic Variance
6.4.Evolution in the UV Luminosity Density 3 < z < 10?
6.5.The Abundance of Star Forming Sources Necessary for Reionization
6.6.The Spitzer Space Telescope Revolution: Stellar Masses at z appeq 6
6.7.Lecture Summary

7.LYMAN ALPHA EMITTERS AND GRAVITATIONAL LENSING
7.1.Strong Gravitational Lensing - A Primer
7.2.Creating a Cluster Mass Model
7.3.Lensing in Action: Some High z Examples
7.4.Lyman alpha Surveys
7.5.Results from Narrow Band Lyalpha Surveys
7.6.Results from Lensed Lyalpha Surveys
7.7.Lecture Summary

8.COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND
8.1.Motivation
8.2.Methodogy
8.3.Recent Background Measurements
8.4.Fluctuation Analyses
8.5.EBL Constraints from TeV Gamma Rays
8.6.Lecture Summary

9.EPILOGUE: FUTURE PROSPECTS
9.1.Introduction
9.2.The Next Five Years
9.3.Beyond Five Years

REFERENCES