Based on complementary high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic
observations from Chandra, we have learned a great deal about
various high-energy phenomena and processes in galaxies:
The luminosity functions and their dependence
on the stellar mass and star formation rate are nearly universal for
essentially all major types of discrete X-ray sources in galaxies.
- A very hot component of the global ISM in the
Galaxy has been revealed, and its global spatial, thermal, chemical, and
kinetic properties have been characterized.
- Stringent upper limits have been obtained to the
contents of the chemically-enriched CGM around our Galaxy and around
other galaxies/groups along the sight lines toward several luminous AGNs.
- Detailed structures of the superwinds
emanated from starburst galaxies are resolved, tracing strong interplay
between the very hot outflowing gas and the presence of cool gas.
- Sporadic energy injections from AGNs are shown to
play an important role in shaping the global hot gas in and around
- Truly diffuse hot gas has also
been mapped out for a few nearby normal galaxies, indicating that ongoing
stellar feedback may play an important role in regulating the galactic
In conclusion, the existing work has demonstrated the power of
Chandra observations in probing the stellar and AGN feedback and
its effect on galaxy evolution as well as inventorying various kinds of
high-energy sources in galaxies.
I thank the referee for constructive comments and the organizers
of the Chandra's First Decade of Discovery conference for the invitation
to give the talk that this paper is based on and am grateful to my
students and collaborators for their contributions to the work described
above, particularly Yangsen Yao who helped to produce Figures 1 and
2. The work is partly supported by NASA/CXC under grants G08-9088B and