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Article Contents

ABSTRACT

1.INTRODUCTION
1.1.Fundamental role
1.2.Early History
1.3.Review structure

2.BASIC PHYSICS
2.1.Sources of Energy
2.1.1.STELLAR WINDS & SUPERNOVAE
2.1.2.AGN
2.2.Wind-blown bubbles
2.3.Galactic winds
2.4.Hydrodynamical Simulations

3.MAJOR WINDBLOWN EVENTS IN THE LMC & GALAXY
3.1.Large Magellanic Cloud
3.2.Nuclear Wind in the Galaxy

4.LOCAL CENSUS OF GALACTIC WINDS IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES
4.1.Search Techniques & Observational Limitations
4.2.Detection Rate
4.3.Morphology
4.4.Kinematics
4.5.Mass Outflow Rates & Energetics
4.6.Escape Fraction
4.7.Energy Injection Zone
4.8.Excitation Properties & Evolution
4.9.Wind Fluid
4.10.Dust

5.LOCAL CENSUS OF LARGE-SCALE OUTFLOWS IN ACTIVE GALAXIES
5.1.Detection Rate
5.2.Morphology
5.3.Kinematics
5.4.Mass Outflow Rates & Energetics
5.5.Energy Injection Zone
5.6.Source of Ionization
5.7.Dust

6.WINDS IN THE DISTANT UNIVERSE
6.1.High-Redshift Galaxies
6.2.QSO Absorption-Line Systems

7.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF GALACTIC WINDS
7.1.Influence of Winds on Galactic Scales
7.1.1.GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION
7.1.2.CHEMICAL EVOLUTION
7.1.3.DISK SIZE AND DARK MATTER CONCENTRATION
7.1.4.POROSITY OF HOST ISM
7.1.5.SPHEROID - BLACK HOLE CONNECTION
7.2.Influence of Winds on Intergalactic Scales
7.2.1.INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM
7.2.2.INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

8.FUTURE DIRECTIONS
8.1Observational Challenges
8.1.1.UNBIASED CENSUS OF LOCAL WINDS
8.1.2.WIND FLUID
8.1.3.ENTRAINED MOLECULAR GAS & DUST
8.1.4.ZONE OF INFLUENCE & ESCAPE EFFICIENCY
8.1.5.THERMALIZATION EFFICIENCY
8.1.6.WIND/ISM INTERFACE & MAGNETIC FIELDS
8.1.7.GALACTIC WINDS IN THE DISTANT UNIVERSE
8.1.8.POSITIVE FEEDBACK BY WINDS
8.2.Theoretical Challenges
8.2.1.MODELING THE ENERGY SOURCE
8.2.2.MODELING THE HOST ISM
8.2.3.COUPLING THE RADIATION FIELD TO GAS

REFERENCES