Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 2005. 43: 769-826
Copyright © 2005 by . All rights reserved

Reprinted with kind permission from , 4139 El Camino Way, Palo Alto, California, USA

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GALACTIC WINDS

Sylvain Veilleux 1, Gerald Cecil 2, and Joss Bland-Hawthorn 3


1 Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742
2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255
3 Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping, New South Wales, Australia


Abstract. Galactic winds are the primary mechanism by which energy and metals are recycled in galaxies and are deposited into the intergalactic medium. New observations are revealing the ubiquity of this process, particularly at high redshift. We describe the physics behind these winds, discuss the observational evidence for them in nearby star-forming and active galaxies and in the high-redshift universe, and consider the implications of energetic winds for the formation and evolution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium. To inspire future research, we conclude with a set of observational and theoretical challenges.


Key words : galaxies: evolution - galaxies: halos - galaxies: intergalactic medium - galaxies: kinematics and dynamics - galaxies: nuclei


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION
Fundamental role
Early History
Review structure

BASIC PHYSICS
Sources of Energy
STELLAR WINDS & SUPERNOVAE
AGN
Wind-blown bubbles
Galactic winds
Hydrodynamical Simulations

MAJOR WINDBLOWN EVENTS IN THE LMC & GALAXY
Large Magellanic Cloud
Nuclear Wind in the Galaxy

LOCAL CENSUS OF GALACTIC WINDS IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES
Search Techniques & Observational Limitations
Detection Rate
Morphology
Kinematics
Mass Outflow Rates & Energetics
Escape Fraction
Energy Injection Zone
Excitation Properties & Evolution
Wind Fluid
Dust

LOCAL CENSUS OF LARGE-SCALE OUTFLOWS IN ACTIVE GALAXIES
Detection Rate
Morphology
Kinematics
Mass Outflow Rates & Energetics
Energy Injection Zone
Source of Ionization
Dust

WINDS IN THE DISTANT UNIVERSE
High-Redshift Galaxies
QSO Absorption-Line Systems

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF GALACTIC WINDS
Influence of Winds on Galactic Scales
GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION
CHEMICAL EVOLUTION
DISK SIZE AND DARK MATTER CONCENTRATION
POROSITY OF HOST ISM
SPHEROID - BLACK HOLE CONNECTION
Influence of Winds on Intergalactic Scales
INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM
INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
Observational Challenges
UNBIASED CENSUS OF LOCAL WINDS
WIND FLUID
ENTRAINED MOLECULAR GAS & DUST
ZONE OF INFLUENCE & ESCAPE EFFICIENCY
THERMALIZATION EFFICIENCY
WIND/ISM INTERFACE & MAGNETIC FIELDS
GALACTIC WINDS IN THE DISTANT UNIVERSE
POSITIVE FEEDBACK BY WINDS
Theoretical Challenges
MODELING THE ENERGY SOURCE
MODELING THE HOST ISM
COUPLING THE RADIATION FIELD TO GAS

REFERENCES

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