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Article Contents

ABSTRACT

1.INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

2.HOW IS MORPHOLOGY RELEVANT TO SECULAR EVOLUTION?

3.HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

4.TUNING FORK CONTROVERSY
4.1.Does the continuity of galaxy morphology imply that secular evolution must be occurring?

5.Lecture 2: BARRED AND SPIRAL GALAXIES
5.1.Quantifying bar strength
5.2.Bar strength from maximum relative gravitational torques
5.3.Inner ring shapes and bar strength
5.4.Resonances in barred galaxies
5.5.Rings and pseudorings as tracers of the bar pattern speed
5.6.Are bars generally slightly skewed?
5.7.Secular evolution in barred galaxies

6.Lecture 3: THE INFRARED EXPERIENCE
6.1.Significant IR morphological surveys
6.2.The S4G bar fraction
6.3.Inferring stellar mass from S4G images
6.4.Secular evolution and the potential-density phase shift
6.5.Summary

7.Lecture 4: ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS, EXOTIC MORPHOLOGIES, AND MORPHOLOGICAL DATABASES
7.1.Environmental effects in clusters
7.2.Gravitational encounter phenomena
7.3.Interaction and merger morphologies
7.4.The morphology of active galaxies
7.5.The morphology of brightest cluster members
7.6.Warped disks
7.7.Non-barred ringed galaxies
7.8.Counter-winding spirals
7.9.Giant low-brightness galaxies and stellar streams
7.10.Magellanic barred spiral galaxies
7.11.Compact ellipticals
7.12.Blue compact dwarf galaxies
7.13.Ultra-compact dwarf galaxies
7.14.Isolated galaxies
7.15.Ultraviolet galaxy morphology
7.16.The morphology of the interstellar medium
7.17.High-redshift galaxy morphology
7.18.The Sloan Digital Sky Survey
7.19.Galaxy Zoo and citizen science
7.20.Advanced galaxy morphology and classification

8.SUMMARY

REFERENCES