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Article Contents

CONTENTS

1.REPULSIVE GRAVITY AND COSMIC ACCELERATION

2.THEORIES OF COSMIC ACCELERATION
2.1.Dark Energy or Modified Gravity ?
2.2.Expansion History and Growth of Structure
2.3.Parameters

3.OBSERVATIONAL PROBES

4.CURRENT CONSTRAINTS ON EXPANSION, GROWTH, AND DARK ENERGY

5.SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK

RERERENCES