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Article Contents

ABSTRACT

1.INTRODUCTION
1.1.Definitions and Overview of Evolution
1.1.1.The Lowest Mass Stars
1.1.2.The Low Mass Stars
1.1.3.The Intermediate Mass Stars
1.1.4.The Lower Intermediate Mass Stars
1.1.5.The Middle Intermediate Mass Stars
1.1.6.The Massive Intermediate Mass Stars
1.1.7.The Massive Stars
1.2.Stellar Yield Calculations

2.EVOLUTION AND NUCLEOSYNTHESIS PRIOR TO THE ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH
2.1.Illustrative Examples
2.2.First Dredge-Up
2.2.1.Abundance Changes due to FDU
2.2.2.The Onset of FDU
2.2.3.The Bump in the Luminosity Function
2.2.4.The Need for Extra-Mixing
2.2.5.The 3He problem
2.3.Non-convective mixing processes on the First Giant Branch
2.3.1.The onset of extra mixing
2.3.2.Rotation
2.3.3.Parameterised models
2.3.4.Thermohaline mixing
2.3.5.Magnetic Fields and Other Mechanisms
2.4.Lithium
2.5.Second Dredge-Up
2.6.Variations at low metallicity
2.6.1.Curtailing First Dredge-Up
2.6.2.The Core Helium Flash
2.6.3.Proton Ingestion Episodes

3.EVOLUTION AND NUCLEOSYNTHESIS DURING THE ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH
3.1.The thermally-pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch
3.2.Hot bottom burning
3.2.1.Dredge-up, HBB and the Brightest C Stars
3.2.2.The Core-Mass vs Luminosity Relation
3.3.Third dredge up
3.3.1.The Dredge-Up Parameter
3.3.2.The Carbon Star Luminosity Function and other Observational Constraints
3.4.Nucleosynthesis during Asymptotic Giant Branch Evolution
3.5.Nucleosynthesis via thermal pulses
3.5.1.The carbon isotopic ratio: 12C / 13C
3.5.2.Nitrogen isotopic ratios
3.5.3.The Intershell Oxygen Abundance
3.5.4.Fluorine
3.5.5.Other Species in the Intershell
3.5.6.Heavy Magnesium isotopes
3.5.7.Planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars
3.6.Nucleosynthesis from Hot Bottom Burning
3.6.1.C, N, and O
3.6.2.Ne, Na, Mg, and Al
3.6.3.Lithium
3.6.4.Type I planetary nebulae
3.7.The slow neutron capture process
3.7.1.Neutron sources in AGB stars
3.7.2.The formation of 13C pockets
3.7.3.The s-process in low-mass AGB stars
3.7.4.The s-process in intermediate-mass AGB stars
3.8.Proton ingestion episodes: PIEs
3.8.1.Overview of 1D PIEs
3.8.2.1D PIEs and the i-process
3.8.3.Yields from 1D PIEs
3.8.4.Multi-dimensional PIE calculations
3.9.Beyond the AGB: Super-AGB stars
3.9.1.Super-AGB Evolution
3.9.2.Third Dredge-Up
3.9.3.Super-AGB Nucleosynthesis
3.10.Final fates of AGB and Super-AGB stars

4.MAJOR UNCERTAINTIES
4.1.Convection and the third dredge up
4.1.1.Determining the Borders of Convection
4.1.2.Structural Changes from Convection
4.2.Mass loss
4.3.Extra mixing in AGB stars
4.4.Low temperature Opacities
4.5.The s-process
4.6.Binary evolution

5.CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT FROM AGB STARS
5.1.Stellar yields from AGB stars
5.2.Summary of elements produced by low and intermediate-mass stars
5.2.1.Lithium
5.2.2.Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen
5.2.3.Fluorine
5.2.4.From Neon to Iron
5.2.5.Heavy elements produced by the s-process

6.SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK

REFERENCES