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Chapter Contents

  1. THE LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE
    1.1 Astronomy and cosmology
    1.2 Our Galaxy
    1.3 Galaxy types
    1.4 Radio sources
    1.5 Quasars
    1.6 Structures on the largest scale
    1.7 Coordinates and catalogues of astronomical objects
    1.8 Expansion of the universe
    1.9 The radiation backgrounds
    1.10 Relativistic cosmology

  2. GENERAL RELATIVITY
    2.1 Space, time, and gravitation
    2.2 Vectors and tensors
    2.3 Covariant differentiation
    2.4 Riemannian geometry
    2.5 Spacetime curvature
    2.6 Geodesics
    2.7 The principle of equivalence
    2.8 Action principle and the energy tensors
    2.9 Gravitational equations
    2.10 The Schwarzschild solution
    Exercises

  3. FROM RELATIVITY TO COSMOLOGY
    3.1 Historical background
    3.2 The Einstein universe
    3.3 The expanding universe
    3.4 Simplifying assumptions of cosmology
    3.5 The redshift
    3.6 Apparent magnitude
    3.7 Hubble's law
    3.8 Angular size
    3.9 Source counts
    Exercises

  4. THE FRIEDMANN MODELS
    4.1 The Einstein field equations in cosmology
    4.2 Energy tensors of the universe
    4.3 The solution of Friedmann's equations
    4.4 The luminosity distance
    4.5 Angular size
    4.6 Source counts
    4.7 Radiation background from sources
    4.8 Cosmological models with the lambda-term
    4.9 Concluding remarks
    Exercises

  5. RELICS OF THE BIG BANG
    5.1 The early universe
    5.2 Thermodynamics of the early universe
    5.3 Primordial neutrinos
    5.4 The neutron/proton ratio
    5.5 The synthesis of helium and other nuclei
    5.6 The microwave background
    5.7 Concluding remarks
    Exercises

  6. THE VERY EARLY UNIVERSE
    6.1 Cosmology and particle physics
    6.2 Survival of massive particles
    6.3 Grand unified theories and baryon asymmetry
    6.4 Some problems of standard cosmology
    6.5 The inflationary universe
    6.6 Primordial black holes
    6.7 Quantum cosmology
    Exercises

  7. THE FORMATION OF STRUCTURES IN THE UNIVERSE
    7.1 A key problem in cosmology
    7.2 The Jeans mass in the expanding universe
    7.3 Growth in the postrecombination era
    7.4 Observational constraints
    7.5 Inputs from the inflationary phase
    7.6 The role of dark matter
    7.7 The nonlinear regime
    Exercises

  8. ALTERNATIVE COSMOLOGIES
    8.1 Alternatives to Friedmann cosmologies
    8.2 The steady state theory
    8.3 Observable parameters of the steady state theory
    8.4 PhysicaL and astrophysical considerations
    8.5 Mach's principle
    8.6 The Brans-Dicke theory of gravity
    8.7 CosmologicaL solutions in the Brans-Dicke theory
    8.8 The Hoyle-Narlikar cosmologies
    8.9 The gravitational equations of HN theory
    8.10 The Large Numbers Hypothesis
    8.11 The two metrics
    8.12 Cosmological models based on the LNH
    8.13 Conclusion
    Exercises

  9. LOCAL OBSERVATIONS OF COSMOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 The measurement of Hubble's constant
    9.3 The anisotropy of local large-scale velocity fields
    9.4 The distribution and density of matter in our neighbourhood
    9.5 The age of the universe
    9.6 The abundance of light nuclei
    9.7 The evidence for antimatter
    9.8 The microwave background
    Exercises

  10. OBSERVATIONS OF DISTANT PARTS OF THE UNIVERSE
    10.1 The past light cone
    10.2 The redshift-magnitude relation
    10.3 Number counts of extragalactic objects
    10.4 The variation of angular sizes with distance
    10.5 The surface brightness test
    10.6 Quasars as probes of history of the universe
    10.7 The variation of fundamental constants
    Exercises

  11. A CRITICAL OVERVIEW
    11.1 Cosmology as a science
    11.2 The case for standard cosmology
    11.2 The case for standard cosmology
    11.3 The case against standard cosmology
    11.4 The observational uncertainties
    11.5 Outlook for the future

Table of constants

Glossary of symbols and abbreviations

Bibliography

Index