
 © CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 1993

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Chapter Contents
 THE LARGESCALE STRUCTURE OF THE
UNIVERSE
 1.1 Astronomy and cosmology
 1.2 Our Galaxy
 1.3 Galaxy types
 1.4 Radio sources
 1.5 Quasars
 1.6 Structures on the largest scale
 1.7 Coordinates and catalogues of astronomical objects
 1.8 Expansion of the universe
 1.9 The radiation backgrounds
 1.10 Relativistic cosmology
 GENERAL RELATIVITY
 2.1 Space, time, and gravitation
 2.2 Vectors and tensors
 2.3 Covariant differentiation
 2.4 Riemannian geometry
 2.5 Spacetime curvature
 2.6 Geodesics
 2.7 The principle of equivalence
 2.8 Action principle and the energy tensors
 2.9 Gravitational equations
 2.10 The Schwarzschild solution
 Exercises
 FROM RELATIVITY TO COSMOLOGY
 3.1 Historical background
 3.2 The Einstein universe
 3.3 The expanding universe
 3.4 Simplifying assumptions of cosmology
 3.5 The redshift
 3.6 Apparent magnitude
 3.7 Hubble's law
 3.8 Angular size
 3.9 Source counts
 Exercises
 THE FRIEDMANN MODELS
 4.1 The Einstein field equations in cosmology
 4.2 Energy tensors of the universe
 4.3 The solution of Friedmann's equations
 4.4 The luminosity distance
 4.5 Angular size
 4.6 Source counts
 4.7 Radiation background from sources
 4.8 Cosmological models with the term
 4.9 Concluding remarks
 Exercises
 RELICS OF THE BIG BANG
 5.1 The early universe
 5.2 Thermodynamics of the early universe
 5.3 Primordial neutrinos
 5.4 The neutron/proton ratio
 5.5 The synthesis of helium and other nuclei
 5.6 The microwave background
 5.7 Concluding remarks
 Exercises
 THE VERY EARLY UNIVERSE
 6.1 Cosmology and particle physics
 6.2 Survival of massive particles
 6.3 Grand unified theories and baryon asymmetry
 6.4 Some problems of standard cosmology
 6.5 The inflationary universe
 6.6 Primordial black holes
 6.7 Quantum cosmology
 Exercises
 THE FORMATION OF STRUCTURES IN THE UNIVERSE
 7.1 A key problem in cosmology
 7.2 The Jeans mass in the expanding universe
 7.3 Growth in the postrecombination era
 7.4 Observational constraints
 7.5 Inputs from the inflationary phase
 7.6 The role of dark matter
 7.7 The nonlinear regime
 Exercises
 ALTERNATIVE COSMOLOGIES
 8.1 Alternatives to Friedmann cosmologies
 8.2 The steady state theory
 8.3 Observable parameters of the steady state theory
 8.4 PhysicaL and astrophysical considerations
 8.5 Mach's principle
 8.6 The BransDicke theory of gravity
 8.7 CosmologicaL solutions in the BransDicke theory
 8.8 The HoyleNarlikar cosmologies
 8.9 The gravitational equations of HN theory
 8.10 The Large Numbers Hypothesis
 8.11 The two metrics
 8.12 Cosmological models based on the LNH
 8.13 Conclusion
 Exercises
 LOCAL OBSERVATIONS OF COSMOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE
 9.1 Introduction
 9.2 The measurement of Hubble's constant
 9.3 The anisotropy of local largescale velocity fields
 9.4 The distribution and density of matter in our neighbourhood
 9.5 The age of the universe
 9.6 The abundance of light nuclei
 9.7 The evidence for antimatter
 9.8 The microwave background
 Exercises
 OBSERVATIONS OF DISTANT PARTS OF THE UNIVERSE
 10.1 The past light cone
 10.2 The redshiftmagnitude relation
 10.3 Number counts of extragalactic objects
 10.4 The variation of angular sizes with distance
 10.5 The surface brightness test
 10.6 Quasars as probes of history of the universe
 10.7 The variation of fundamental constants
 Exercises
 A CRITICAL OVERVIEW
 11.1 Cosmology as a science
 11.2 The case for standard cosmology
 11.2 The case for standard cosmology
 11.3 The case against standard cosmology
 11.4 The observational uncertainties
 11.5 Outlook for the future
Table of constants
Glossary of symbols and abbreviations
Bibliography
Index