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Article Contents

ABSTRACT

1.INTRODUCTION

2.OBSERVATIONAL PROGRESS UP TO 2005
2.1.Progenitor candidates
2.2.Light curve breaks and jets
2.3.Optical flashes
2.4.Association with supernovae
2.5.X-ray flashes
2.6.Empirical correlations and distance estimators

3.RECENT RESULTS FROM SWIFT AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS

4.THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
4.1.The Relativistic Fireball Model
4.2.Reference frames and timescales in relativistic flows
4.3.Relativistic dynamics
4.4.Optical Depth and Photosphere
4.5.Thermal vs. Dissipative Fireballs and Shocks
4.6.Duration, reverse shocks, thin and thick shells
4.7.Spectrum of the Prompt GRB Emission
4.8.Alternative Prompt Emission Models

5.AFTERGLOW RADIATION MODELS
5.1.The standard model
5.2.Prompt Flashes and Reverse Shocks
5.3.Dependence on external density, injection variability and anisotropy
5.4.Equal arrival time surface and limb brightening effect
5.5.Jets

6.CURRENT THEORETICAL ISSUES IN AFTERGLOW MODELS
6.1.Early steep decay
6.2.Shallow decay
6.3.X-ray flares
6.4.Late steep decay and jet breaks
6.5.Prompt optical flashes and high redshift afterglows

7.SHORT GRB IN THE SWIFT ERA
7.1.Short GRB observations
7.2.Short GRB prompt and afterglow emission
7.3.Short burst hosts and progenitors
7.4.Short burst redshifts and progenitor lifetimes

8.LONG GRB PROGENITORS IN LIGHT OF SWIFT
8.1.Long GRB hosts and progenitors
8.2.Supernova connection
8.3.Jet dynamics, cocoons and progenitors

9.VERY HIGH ENERGY PHOTONS AND NON-ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSION
9.1.UHE photons from GRB
9.2.Cosmic rays from GRB
9.3.UHE neutrinos contemporary with gamma-rays
9.4.Precursor neutrinos
9.5.Gravitational waves

REFERENCES