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Article Contents

ABSTRACT

1.INTRODUCTION

2.SINGLE-FLUID MHD-SHOCKS

3.COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS
3.1.Micro processes in collisionless shocks
3.2.Heating of ions in collisionless shocks
3.3.Heating of electrons in collisionless shocks
3.4.Gas heating and entropy production in weak internal shocks

4.ENERGETIC PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS

5.COSMIC-RAY MODIFIED MULTIFLUID SHOCKS
5.1.Magnetic field amplification in CR-dominated shocks
5.2.Gas heating and entropy production in strong CR-modified shocks
5.3.ICM entropy production by multifluid accretion shocks

6.SHOCKS IN LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE
6.1.Evidence for shocks in galaxy clusters

7.SUMMARY

REFERENCES