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Article Contents

ABSTRACT

1.INTRODUCTION

2.OBSERVATIONS OF LOPSIDEDNESS IN GALACTIC DISKS
2.1.Morphological lopsidedness
2.2.Kinematical lopsidedness
2.3.Phase of the disk lopsidedness
2.4.Observations of off-centered nuclear disks

3.THEORETICAL MODELS FOR THE ORIGIN OF LOPSIDEDNESS
3.1.Kinematical model for the origin of lopsidedness
3.2.Dynamical models for the origin of lopsidedness
3.3.Comparison between origin of m = 1 and m = 2, stars and gas
3.4.A summary of the various mechanisms

4.LOPSIDEDNESS IN THE CENTRAL REGION
4.1.Stability of central nuclear disks
4.2.Double nuclei due to infalling bodies
4.3.Core wandering
4.4.Other mechanisms

5.LOPSIDEDNESS IN GALAXIES IN GROUPS, CLUSTERS, AND MERGERS
5.1.Lopsidedness in galaxies in groups
5.2.Lopsidedness in galaxies in clusters
5.3.Lopsidedness in centers of advanced mergers

6.RELATED TOPICS
6.1.Relative strengths of lopsidedness (m = 1) and spiral arms/bars (m = 2)
6.2.Asymmetry in the dark matter halo
6.3.Comparison with warps
6.4.Implications for high redshift galaxies

7.EFFECT OF LOPSIDEDNESS ON GALAXY EVOLUTION

8.SUMMARY & FUTURE DIRECTIONS

REFERENCES