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APPENDIX

A.1 Catalogue of radio surveys of the Milky Way

Table 2: All-sky or all-hemisphere radio total intensity surveys

Frequency Beam Reference

45 MHz Guzmán et al. 2011
150 MHz 3°.6 Landecker & Wielebinski 1970
408 MHz Haslam et al. 1982
1.4 GHz 0°.6 Reich 1982; Reich & Reich 1986; Reich et al. 2001
2.3 GHz 0°.33 Jonas et al. 1998 (southern hemisphere)
2.7 GHz 0°.33 Reif et al. 1987 (northern hemisphere)
23 - 94 GHz 0.°8 - 0°.2 Hinshaw et al. 2009

Table 3: All-sky or all-hemisphere radio polarization surveys

Frequency Beam Reference

408 MHz 7.5° Wielebinski et al. 1962 (northern hemisphere)
Berkhuijsen & Brouw 1963 (northern hemisphere)
7.5° Wielebinski & Shakeshaft 1964 (northern hemisphere)
≈ 1° Mathewson & Milne 1965 (southern hemisphere)
300 MHz - 1.8 GHz 30' - 60' Wolleben et al. 2009; 2010a (northern hemisphere)
1.4 GHz 36' Wolleben et al. 2006; Testori et al. 2008
1.4 GHz ≈ 13' Rudnick & Brown 2009 (northern hemisphere)
23 - 94 GHz 0.°8 - 0°.2 Kogut et al. 2007; Hinshaw et al. 2009

Table 4: Radio surveys of the Galactic plane with angular resolutions of a few arcminutes

Frequency Beam Area (Galactic coordinates) Reference

325 MHz ≈ 4' selected areas Wieringa et al. 1993
350 MHz ≈ 5' selected areas Haverkorn et al. 2003; 2004
408 MHz ≈ 1' 147.3° > l > 74.2° -7.7° < b < 8.7° Taylor et al. 2003
1.4 GHz ≈ 1' 147.3° > l > 74.2° -3.6° < b < 5.6° Taylor et al. 2003
1.4 GHz ≈ 1' 67° > l > 18° b ± 1°.5 Stil et al. 2006
1.4 GHz (PI) ≈ 1' 358° > l > 253° b ± 1°.5 Haverkorn et al. 2006
1.4 GHz (PI) ≈ 1' 175° > l > 66° -3° Landecker et al. 2010
1.4 GHz 9' 162° > l > 93° b ± 4° Kallas & Reich 1980
1.4 GHz 9.4' 240° > l > 95.5° -4° < b < 5° Reich et al. 1990a; 1997
1.4 GHz (PI) 9' selected areas Uyaniker et al. 1999
1.4 GHz ≈ 1' 332.5° > l > 325.5° -0.5° < b < 3.5° Gaensler et al. 2001
2.4 GHz 10.4' 238° > l > 365° b ± 5° Duncan et al. 1995
2.4 GHz (PI) 10.4' 238° > l > 5° b ± 5° Duncan et al. 1997
2.7 GHz 4.3' 357.4° < l < 76° b ± 1.5° Reich et al. 1984
2.7 GHz (PI) 6' 74° > l > 4°.9 b ± 1.5° Junkes et al. 1987
2.7 GHz 4.4' 76° > l > 358° b ± 5° Reich et al. 1990b
2.7 GHz 4.4' 240° > l > 76° b ± 5° Fürst et al. 1990
2.7 GHz (PI) 4.3' 74° > l > 4°.9 b ± 5° Duncan et al. 1999
5 GHz (PI) 9' 129° > l > 122° b ± 5° Sun et al. 2007
5 GHz (PI) 9' 230° > l > 129° b ± 5° Gao et al. 2010
5 GHz (PI) 9' 122° > l > 60° b ± 5° Xiao et al. 2011
5 GHz (PI) 9' 60° > l > 10° b ± 5° Sun et al. 2011

(PI): with polarization data

A.2. Catalogue of radio polarization observations of nearby galaxies

In radio continuum the typical degrees of polarization are much higher than those in the other spectral ranges, and further benefit comes from the development of large instruments and sensitive receivers. This is why almost all of our knowledge on interstellar magnetic fields in galaxies is based on their polarized radio emission and Faraday rotation.

A list of spiral, barred, irregular and dwarf galaxies detected in radio polarization until year 2010 is given in Tables 5, 6 and 7. Most detections were made in the wavelength range 2-13 cm where Faraday depolarization is small. At lambda ≈ 20 cm, the polarized intensity is generally smaller by a factor of several (Fig. 3). At wavelengths of more than 20 cm, no detection of polarized emission from spiral galaxies has been reported so far.

Table 5: Radio polarization observations and magnetic field structures of galaxies with low or moderate inclination

Galaxy Telescope & lambda (cm) Structure Reference

M33 E21,18,11,6,3 BSS Buczilowski & Beck 1991
E6,4, V21 ASS+BSS+QSS Tabatabaei et al. 2008
M51 W21,6 Spiral Segalovitz et al. 1976
V21,18 Spiral Horellou et al. 1992
E6,3, V21,6 ASS+BSS (disk) +ASS (halo) Neininger 1992; Berkhuijsen et al. 1997
W21 BSS (halo) Heald et al. 2009
E6,4, V21,6,4 ASS+QSS (disk), +BSS (halo) Fletcher et al. 2011
M81 E6, V21 BSS Krause et al. 1989b
E6, V21 BSS (+ASS) Sokoloff et al. 1992
V21,6 Interarm fields Schoofs 1992
M83 V21 Spiral Sukumar & Allen 1989
P6 Spiral Harnett et al. 1990
E6,3 BSS? Neininger et al. 1991; 1993
A13 Magnetic arms Ehle 1995
V6 Magnetic arms + || bar Beck 2005
M101 E11,6,3 Spiral Gräve et al. 1990
E11,6 Spiral Berkhuijsen et al., unpubl.
NGC0628 W21 Incomplete spiral Heald et al. 2009
NGC0660 V6 || polar ring +X-shape Drzazga et al. 2011
NGC0877 V6 Spiral Drzazga et al. 2011
NGC1097 V21,18,6,4 ASS+BSS+QSS +|| bar +nuclear spiral Beck et al. 2005a
NGC1365 V21,18,6,4 ASS+BSS+QSS +|| bar +nuclear spiral Beck et al. 2005a
NGC1559 A13,6 || bar Beck et al. 2002
NGC1566 A21,13,6 Spiral, interarm Ehle et al. 1996
NGC1569 W21, V6,3 Spiral, bubbles, loops Kepley et al. 2010
NGC1672 A13,6 Spiral, interarm Beck et al. 2002
NGC2207 V6 Spiral +radial streamers Drzazga et al. 2011
NGC2276 V21,6 BSS? Hummel & Beck 1995
NGC2403 E11,6 Spiral Beck unpubl.
W21 Diffuse Heald et al. 2009
NGC2442 A13,6 Spiral + || bar Harnett et al. 2004
NGC2841 W21 Two arcs Heald et al. 2009
NGC2903 E6,3, V21 Spiral Beck, unpubl.
W21 Spiral Heald et al. 2009
NGC2997 V21,6,4, A13 Spiral +inner ASS? Han et al. 1999
NGC3521 E 3 Spiral, compressed Knapik et al. 2000
NGC3627 E3 Spiral +|| dust lane Soida et al. 1999
V6,4 Anomalous arm Soida et al. 2001
W21 Spiral Heald et al. 2009
E11 Spiral Nikiel-Wroczyski et al. 2013a
NGC3938 W21 Spiral Heald et al. 2009
NGC4038 V21,6,4 || tidal arm Chyzy & Beck 2004
NGC4214 V6 No ordered field Kepley et al. 2010
E6 Fragment of a spiral Drzazga 2008
NGC4258 W21, V21 In anomalous arms van Albada & van der Hulst 1982
V21,6 || anomalous arms Hummel et al. 1989
V4, E3 || nuclear jet + an. arms Krause & Löhr 2004
NGC4414 V6,4 ASS+BSS+QSS Soida et al. 2002
NGC4449 E6,3 || opt. filaments Klein et al. 1996
V6,4 Spiral+radial field Chyzy et al. 2000
NGC4490 / 85 E6,4 Radial halo field Knapik et al. in prep.
NGC4736 V6,4 Spiral, ASS? Chyzy & Buta 2008
W21 Outer lobe Heald et al. 2009
NGC5033 W21 Inner disk Heald et al. 2009
NGC5055 E3 Spiral Knapik et al. 2000
W21 Spiral Heald et al. 2009
NGC5426 / 7 V6 Spiral +spiral Drzazga et al. 2011
NGC6822 E11,6,3 No ordered field Chyzy et al. 2003; 2011
NGC6907 V6 Spiral Drzazga et al. 2011
NGC6946 E11,6,3 ASS? Ehle & Beck 1993
V21,18,6,4 ASS+QSS Beck 1991; 2007
W21 ASS (halo) Heald et al. 2009
NGC7479 V21,6,4 || spiral jet Beck et al. 2002; Laine & Beck 2008
NGC7552 A6 Spiral + || bar Beck et al. 2002
IC10 E11,6,3 || Halpha filament Chyzy et al. 2003; 2011
V6 Filaments Heesen et al. 2011a
V6,4 Filaments Chyzy 2005
IC342 E11,6 ASS Gräve & Beck 1988
E6, V21 ASS Krause et al. 1989a
E6, V21 ASS Sokoloff et al. 1992
V6,4 Magnetic arms Beck unpubl.
IC1613 E11,6 No ordered field Chyzy et al. 2011
UGC813 / 6 V6 ⊥ bridge Drzazga et al. 2011
UGC12914 / 5 V6 || bridge Drzazga et al. 2011
Holmberg II E11,6 No ordered field Chyzy et al., unpubl.
SMC P21,13 || main ridge Haynes et al. 1986
A21 Pan-Magellanic? Mao et al. 2008
LMC P21,13,6 Magn. loop near 30 Dor Haynes et al. 1991; Klein et al. 1993
A21 ASS Gaensler et al. 2005
P21, A21 || filaments, even-symmetry halo field Mao et al. 2012
Leo Triplet E11 No intergalactic field Nikiel-Wroczyski et al. 2013a
Stephan's Quintet E4, V21,6 Intergalactic field Nikiel-Wroczyski et al. 2013b
PKS1229-021 V21,6,2 BSS? Kronberg et al. 1992

Table 6: Radio polarization observations and magnetic field structures of galaxies with high inclination (almost edge-on)

Galaxy Telescope & lambda (cm) Structure Reference

M31 E21,11,6 Even-symmetry ASS Beck 1982; Beck et al. 1989
V21,6 Spiral (inner region) Beck et al. 1998
E11,6, V21 Even ASS (+QSS) Berkhuijsen et al. 2003; Fletcher et al. 2004
M82 V6,4 Radial halo field Reuter et al. 1994
E1 || disk +vertical halo field Wielebinski 2006
M104 V21,6 || disk +X-shaped halo field Krause et al. 2006
NGC253 P6,3 || plane Harnett et al. 1990
V21,6 || plane Carilli et al. 1992
E6,3 || plane, halo spurs Beck et al. 1994
E6,4, V21,6 Even ASS disk field +even halo field Heesen et al. 2009a; 2009b
V21,6,4 Helical field in outflow cone Heesen et al. 2011b
NGC891 V6 || plane +halo spurs Sukumar & Allen 1991
V21 || plane +halo spurs Hummel et al. 1991
E3 || plane +tilted Dumke et al. 1995
E4 Even ASS disk field +X-shaped halo field Krause 2009
NGC1808 V21,6 Halo spurs Dahlem et al. 1990
NGC3079 V6 Extraplanar jet Duric & Seaquist 1988
NGC3432 E6 Vertical, weak Drzazga 2008
NGC3628 V21 Fragments of ord. field Reuter et al. 1991
E3 || plane Dumke et al. 1995
E4 || plane +X-shaped halo field Krause, unpubl.
E11 || plane Nikiel-Wroczyski et al. 2013a
NGC4217 V6 X-shaped halo field Soida 2005
NGC4236 E6 No ordered field Chyzy et al. 2007
NGC4565 V21 || plane Sukumar & Allen 1991
E3 || plane Dumke et al. 1995
E6,4, V6 || plane +X-shaped halo field Krause 2009
NGC4631 V21 ⊥ plane Hummel et al. 1991
V6,4 ⊥ plane, spurs Golla & Hummel 1994
V21,18 X-shaped halo field Beck 2009
E4 || plane +vertical central field +X-shaped halo field Krause 2009
W21 X-shaped halo field Heald et al. 2009
NGC4656 E6 No ordered field Chyzy et al. 2007
NGC4666 V21,6 X-shaped halo field Dahlem et al. 1997
V6 X-shaped halo field Soida 2005
NGC4945 P6,3 Halo spurs Harnett et al. 1989; 1990
NGC5775 V21,6 X-shaped halo field Tüllmann et al. 2000
V4 Even ASS disk field +X-shaped halo field Soida et al. 2011
NGC5907 E6, V21 plane Dumke 1997
E4 plane +X-shape? Krause, unpubl.
NGC7331 E3 plane Dumke et al. 1995
W21 X-shaped halo field Heald et al. 2009
Circinus A21, 13 radio lobes Elmouttie et al. 1995
IC2574 E6 No ordered field Chyzy et al. 2007

Table 7: Radio polarization observations and magnetic field structures of galaxies in the Virgo cluster

Galaxy Telescope & lambda (cm) Structure Reference

NGC4192 E6,4 ASS? +halo field Wegowiec et al. 2012
V21,6 || disk +inclined Vollmer et al. 2013
NGC4254 E6,3 Spiral Soida et al. 1996
V21,6,4, E6,3 ASS (+BSS), tidally stretched Chyzy 2008
W21 Spiral Heald et al. 2009
NGC4294 V21,6 Halo field, inclined to disk Vollmer et al. 2013
NGC4299 V21,6 Fragments of a spiral Vollmer et al. 2013
NGC4298 / NGC4302 E6,4 || disk+intergal. bridge, locally vertical Wegowiec et al. 2012
NGC4302 V21,6 Mostly || disk Vollmer et al. 2013
NGC4303 E6,4 ASS? Wegowiec et al. 2012
V21,6 Spiral Vollmer et al. 2013
NGC4321 V21,6 Spiral Vollmer et al. 2007; 2010
W21 Spiral Heald et al. 2009
E6,4 BSS? + || bar Wegowiec et al. 2012
NGC4330 V21,6 Mostly || disk Vollmer et al. 2013
NGC4388 E6,4 Inclined to disk Wegowiec et al. 2012
V21,6 || disk +incl. in halo Vollmer et al. 2007; 2010
NGC4396 V21,6 || disk +NW tail Vollmer et al. 2007; 2010
NGC4402 V21,6 || disk in southern halo, incl. in northern halo Vollmer et al. 2007; 2010
NGC4419 V21,6 || disk +X-shaped Vollmer et al. 2013
NGC4424 V6 X-shaped Vollmer et al. 2013
NGC4438 E6 || disk, ⊥ outflow Wegowiec et al. 2007
V6 || disk, displaced from disk in the east Vollmer et al. 2007; 2010
NGC4457 V21,6 Spiral Vollmer et al. 2013
NGC4501 E6,3 || disk, asymmetric Wegowiec et al. 2007
V21,6 Compressed along SW disk edge Vollmer et al. 2007; 2010
NGC4522 V21,6 || plane, compressed Vollmer et al. 2004
NGC4532 V6 Huge halo field, inclined +vertical, X-shaped Vollmer et al. 2013
NGC4535 V21,6,4 Spiral Beck et al. 2002
E6,4 Spiral, asymmetric Wegowiec et al. 2007; 2012
V21,6 spiral arm, asymmetric Vollmer et al. 2007; 2010
E4 ASS? Wegowiec et al. 2012
NGC4548 E6 ⊥ bar Wegowiec et al. 2007
NGC4567 / NGC4568 V21,6 Intergal. bridge Vollmer et al. 2013
NGC4569 E6,4 || disk + || outflow Chyzy et al. 2006
W21 || disk + || outflow Heald et al. 2009
V21,6 || disk + || outflow Chyzy et al. in prep.
NGC4579 V21,6 || bar, spiral in outer disk Vollmer et al. 2013
NGC4654 E6,4 || SW arm + || gas tail Wegowiec et al. 2007
V21,6 || arms, bending out towards gas tail Vollmer et al. 2007; 2010
NGC4689 V21,6 Fragments of a spiral Vollmer et al. 2013
NGC4713 V21,6 Spiral Vollmer et al. 2013
NGC4808 V21,6 Vertical, asymmetric Vollmer et al. 2013

Instruments: E = Effelsberg 100-m, V = Very Large Array, A = Australia Telescope Compact Array, P = Parkes 64-m, W = Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope

Wavelength codes: 21 = 20-22 cm, 18 = 18.0 cm, 13 = 12.5-13.4 cm, 11 = 11.1 cm, 6 = 5.8-6.3 cm, 4 = 3.6 cm, 3 = 2.8 cm, 2 = 2.0 cm, 1 = 9 mm

Field structures: ASS = axisymmetric spiral, BSS = bisymmetric spiral, QSS = quadrisymmetric spiral, MSS = multimode spiral

A.3 Links to the SKA project and its precursor and pathfinder telescopes

http://www.skatelescope.org

http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Square_kilometre_array

http://www.atnf.csiro.au/SKA

http://www.ska.ac.za

http://www.aoc.nrao.edu/evla

http://www.lofar.org

http://www.astron.nl/general/apertif/apertif

http://www.phys.unm.edu/~lwa

http://www.mwatelescope.org


Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank many of our colleagues who have pursued the studies of magnetic fields in the Milky Way and in galaxies for the past 40 years, especially Wolfgang Reich, Marita Krause and Patricia Reich at MPIfR. Many excellent cooperation projects in this field were performed with groups in Kraków (Poland), DRAO Penticton (Canada), NAOC Beijing (China), Moscow and Perm (Russia), Newcastle (UK), Potsdam and Bochum (Germany). Marek Urbanik is acknowledged for compiling Table 7. Elly M. Berkhuijsen, Katia Ferriére and Anvar Shukurov are acknowledged for careful reading of the manuscript.

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