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Article Contents

ABSTRACT

1.INTRODUCTION

2.BACKGROUND
2.1.Galaxy formation
2.2.Relaxation time in the disks of galaxies
2.2.1.Standard theory for spherical systems
2.2.2.Applications to disk systems
2.3.Stellar orbits in disks
2.4.Action-angle variables
2.5.Orbital tori
2.6.Distribution function
2.7.Nonaxisymmetric disturbances
2.8.Resonances
2.9.Local stability
2.10.Angular momentum changes
2.11.Gas
2.12.Gravity softening in simulations
2.11.1.2D simulations
2.11.2.Simulations of thickened disks

3.TRANSIENT SPIRAL MODES
3.1.Origin and Recurrence
3.2.Scattering of stars
3.2.1.Solar neighborhood data
3.2.2.Scattering by spirals
3.2.3.Vertical heating
3.2.4.Scattering by dense mass clumps
3.2.5.Collective effects
3.2.6.Conclusions on scattering
3.2.7.Heating in simulations
3.3.Radial migration and mixing
3.3.1.Mechanism of radial migration
3.3.2.Other radial mixing processes
3.3.3.Radial migration in simulations
3.3.4.Adiabatic invariants
3.3.5.Tests for radial migration in the Milky Way
3.4.Smoothing rotation curves
3.5.Angular momentum redistribution

4.DISK THICKENING AND SURVIVAL
4.1.Formation of thickened disks
4.2.Survival of thin disks
4.3.Challenge to radial migration models

5.BARS
5.1.Stellar dynamics of bars
5.2.The origin of bars
5.2.1.Global bar-forming mode
5.2.2.Stabilizing mechanisms
5.2.3.Bar formation through nonlinear trapping
5.2.4.Slow trapping of orbits
5.2.5.Bar formation through tidal encounters
5.2.6.Recurring bars?
5.3.Continued growth of bars
5.4.Buckling instability
5.5.Gas response to bar forcing
5.5.1.Flows in two dimensions
5.5.2.Flows in 3D
5.6.Bar dissolution
5.7.Discussion of bar fraction
5.8.Bar pattern speeds
5.9.Bars within bars
5.10.Fueling of AGN by bars?
6.DYNAMICAL FRICTION
6.1.Mechanism
6.1.1.Improved treatment
6.1.2.Bar-halo friction
6.2.Constraint on halo density
6.2.1.Anomalously weak friction
6.2.2.Particle number
6.3.Change in halo density
6.3.1.Halo density reduction by bars
6.3.2.Halo density reduction by moving mass clumps

7.RINGS AND OUTER LIGHT PROFILES
7.1.Rings
7.2.Outer light profiles

8.PSEUDOBULGES AND LENSES

9.CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES