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Article Contents

ABSTRACT

1.INTRODUCTION

2.FROM LIGHT TO MASS: MODELLING THE STELLAR M* / L RATIO
2.1.Modelling galaxies and their Stellar Populations, a Historical Introduction
2.2.Basics of Stellar Population Models
2.3.Stellar Mass from M* / L vs Colour Diagnostics
2.3.1.Effect of Star Formation History
2.3.2.Stellar Initial Mass Function
2.3.3.Model ingredients
2.4.Data Fitting Techniques
2.5.Robustness of Stellar Mass Derivations
2.6.Future Prospects

3.DYNAMICAL MASSES OF GAS-RICH GALAXIES
3.1.Mass Estimates from Rotation Curves
3.2.Inner Parts
3.3.Mass Modeling
3.3.1.Mass Modeling Limitations
3.4.Other Galaxy Mass Constraints
3.4.1.Maximal and Sub-maximal Disks
3.4.2.Velocity Dispersion Measurements
3.4.3.Scaling Relations Residuals
3.4.4.Fluid Dynamical Modeling
3.4.5.Gravitational Lensing
3.4.6.Two-body Interactions and the Mass of the Local Group
3.5.Future Prospects

4.DARK MATTER AND MASS MODELS OF THE MILKY WAY
4.1.Introduction
4.2.Multicomponent Models for the Milky Way
4.3.Further Observational Constraints on the Milky Way Potential
4.3.1.Circular Speed at the Sun's Position in the Galaxy
4.3.2.Local Escape Speed
4.3.3.Kinematic Tracers
4.3.4.Vertical Force and Surface Density in the Solar Neighborhood
4.4.Future Prospects

5.DYNAMICAL MASSES OF GAS-POOR GALAXIES
5.1.Introduction
5.2.Simple Mass Estimators
5.3.Methods based on Dynamical Modelling
5.3.1.Jeans Analysis
5.3.2.Spherical Modelling
5.3.3.Axisymmetric Modelling
5.4.Distribution Function Analysis
5.4.1.Spherical Distribution Function Modelling
5.4.2.Towards Flattened Systems
5.4.3.General Orbit-based Modelling
5.5.Results
5.5.1.Integrated Stellar Light: the Inner Regions and the IMF
5.5.2.Globular Clusters and Planetary Nebulae: the Outer Regions
5.5.3.Other Tracers and Combined Approaches
5.5.4.The Mass-Anisotropy Degeneracy
5.5.5.Discrete Star Velocities for Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies
5.6.Future Prospects

6.WEAK LENSING BY GALAXIES
6.1.Introduction
6.2.Theory of Weak Lensing
6.3.Shear
6.4.Magnification
6.5.Galaxy-Mass Cross-Correlation Function
6.6.Properties of Dark Matter Halos
6.7.Halo Shapes
6.8.Future Prospects

7.THE DARK AND LUMINOUS MASS DISTRIBUTION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES
7.1.Introduction
7.2.Basic Lensing Theory
7.2.1.The Thin-Lens Approximation
7.2.2.The Lens Equation
7.2.3.Axisymmetric Lenses
7.2.4.Lensing & Stellar Dynamics
7.3.Observational Results
7.3.1.Sloan Lens ACS Survey (SLACS)
7.3.2.The Density Profiles of Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs)
7.3.3.The Stellar IMF and Dark Matter Fraction in ETGs
7.3.4.Mass Substructure in ETGs
7.3.5.Luminous Dwarf Galaxies
7.3.6.Dark Substructures
7.4.Future Prospects

REFERENCES