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Article Contents

ABSTRACT

1.INTRODUCTION

2.SELECTION OF DISTANT INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES
2.1.Local Infrared-Luminous Galaxies
2.2.The very negative K-correction
2.3.Dusty Galaxy Selection from ~ 8-2000 µm
2.3.1.Facilities and Instruments Discovering high-z DSFGs
2.3.2.Notable surveys focused on DSFG Discovery
2.4.Selection biases and Sensitivity
2.4.1.Intrinsic Variation in SEDs
2.4.2.Identifying Multi-wavelength Counterparts
2.5.DSFG Multiplicity

3.SUBMILLIMETER NUMBER COUNTS
3.1.Confusion Noise
3.2.Using Monte Carlo Simulations in Number Counts Analysis
3.2.1.Estimating Deboosted Flux Densities
3.2.2.Estimating Positional Accuracy
3.2.3.Estimating Sample Contamination & Completeness
3.3.Number Counts
3.4.Parametrizing Number Counts
3.5.Bright-End Counts: Gravitationally Lensed DSFGs
3.6.The Cosmic Infrared Background and P(D) Analysis

4.REDSHIFTS AND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES
4.1.Acquiring Spectroscopic or Photometric Redshifts
4.1.1.Millimetric Spectroscopic Redshifts
4.1.2.Millimetric Photometric Redshifts
4.1.3.Redshift Distributions of 24 µm selected DSFG populations
4.1.4.Redshift Distributions of 850 µm-1.4 mm-selected DSFG populations
4.1.5.Redshift Distributions of 250 µm-500 mm-selected DSFG populations
4.2.Infrared SED Fitting for DSFGs
4.2.1.Employing dust radiative transfer models and empirical templates
4.2.2.Direct modified blackbody SED modeling
4.3.Estimating LIR, Tdust and Mdust from an SED
4.4.Luminosity Functions
4.5.Contribution to Cosmic Star Formation Rate Density

5.PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION
5.1.Star Formation History & Dynamical Time
5.2.Dust Characterization
5.3.Stellar Masses
5.4.Stellar IMF
5.5.Rest-frame Ultraviolet & Optical Spectral Characterization
5.6.AGN Content
5.7.Mid-Infrared Diagnostics
5.8.Mid-Infrared Spitzer-selected Populations
5.9.Kinematics
5.10.Physical Size and Morphology
5.11.Relationship to Normal Galaxies: the Infrared Main Sequence
5.12.The FIR/Radio Correlation

6.DETAILED STUDIES OF INDIVIDUAL DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES
6.1.SMM J02399-0136
6.2.SMM J2135-0102: the Cosmic Eyelash
6.3.GN20
6.4.Lensed DSFGs
6.5.Highest redshift DSFGs
6.5.1.HDF850.1
6.5.2.J1148+5251
6.5.3.AzTEC-3
6.5.4.HFLS3
6.5.5.HLS J0918+5142
6.5.6.SPT 0346-52

7.CLUSTERING AND ENVIRONMENT
7.1.Environments of DSFGs
7.2.Clustering of DSFGs
7.3.Clustering of Faint, Unresolved DSFGs through the CIB Anisotropy Power Spectrum
7.4.Cosmic Magnification of Submm Sources
7.5.DSFGs as a tracer of the CMB lensing potential

8.MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION
8.1.Basic Definitions
8.2.Deriving H2 Gas Masses from High-Redshift Galaxies
8.3.Star Formation Laws and Efficiencies
8.4.The Role of Dense Molecular Gas
8.4.1.Physics Learned from the Milky Way and Local Galaxies
8.4.2.Dense Gas at High-Redshift
8.5.CO Excitation and Spectral Line Energy Distributions
8.6.Molecular Gas Fractions
8.7.Molecular Gas Morphology and Dynamics
8.8.Synthesis

9.ATOMIC LINES
9.1.The [CII]-FIR deficit in Galaxies
9.2.[CII] as a Star Formation Rate Indicator
9.3.[CII] Morphologies and Dynamics

10.THE THEORY OF FORMING DUSTY GALAXIES
10.1.Overview of Dusty Galaxy Modeling Methods
10.1.1.Semi-Analytic Models
10.1.2.Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations
10.1.3.Idealized and Hybrid Models
10.1.4.Empirical Methods
10.2.Main Results from Theories of Dusty Galaxies
10.2.1.Semi-Analytic Methods
10.2.2.Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations
10.2.3.Idealized and Hybrid Simulations
10.3.Testable Predictions and Key Differences between Models

11.FUTURE DIRECTIONS

12.GLOSSARY OF DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXY ACRONYMS

REFERENCES