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The goals of Galactic Archaeology are to find signatures or fossils from the epoch of Galaxy assembly, to give us insight into the processes that took place as the Galaxy formed. A major goal is to identify observationally how important mergers and accretion events were in building up the Galactic disk, bulge and halo of the Milky Way. CDM simulations predict a high level of merger activity which conflicts with some observed properties of disk galaxies, particularly with the relatively common nature of large galaxies like ours with small bulges (e.g. Kormendy et al. 2010).

The aim is to reconstruct the star-forming aggregates and accreted galaxies that built up the disk, bulge, and halo of the Galaxy. Some of these dispersed aggregates can still be recognized kinematically as stellar moving groups. For others, the dynamical information was lost through heating and mixing processes, but their debris can still be recognized by their chemical signatures (chemical tagging). We would like to find groups of stars, now dispersed, that were associated at birth either

The galactic disk shows kinematical substructure in the solar neighborhood: groups of stars moving together, usually called moving stellar groups. Some are associated with dynamical resonances (e.g. the Hercules group): in such groups, we do not expect to see chemical homogeneity or age homogeneity (e.g. Bensby et al. 2007). Others are the debris of star-forming aggregates in the disk (e.g. the HR1614 group and Wolf 630 group). They are chemically homogeneous, and such groups could be useful for reconstructing the history of the galactic disk. Yet others may be debris of infalling objects, as seen in CDM simulations (e.g. Abadi et al. 2003).

The stars of the HR 1614 group appear to be the relic of a dispersed star-forming event. These stars have an age of about 2 Gyr and [Fe/H] = +0.2, and they are scattered all around us. This group has not lost its dynamical identity despite its age. De Silva et al. (2007) measured accurate differential abundances for many elements in HR 1614 stars, and found a very small spread in abundances. This is encouraging for recovering dispersed star forming events by chemical tagging.

Chemical studies of the old disk stars in the Galaxy can help to identify disk stars which came in from outside in disrupting satellites, and also those that are the debris of dispersed star-forming aggregates like the HR 1614 group (Freeman & Bland-Hawthorn 2002). The chemical properties of surviving satellites (the dwarf spheroidal galaxies) vary from satellite to satellite, but are different in detail from the overall chemical properties of the disk stars.

We can think of a chemical space of abundances of elements: O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Eu for example. Not all of these elements vary independently. The dimensionality of this space chemical space is probably between about 7 and 9. Most disk stars inhabit a sub-region of this space. Stars that come from dispersed star clusters represent a very small volume in this space. Stars which came in from satellites may have a distribution in this space that is different enough to stand out from the rest of the disk stars. With this chemical tagging approach, we hope to detect or put observational limits on the satellite accretion history of the galactic disk.

Chemical studies of the old disk stars in the Galaxy can identify disk stars that are the debris of common dispersed star-forming aggregates. Chemical tagging will work if

de Silva's work on open clusters was aimed at testing the last two conditions: they appear to be true. See De Silva et al. (2009) for more on chemical tagging.

We should stress here that chemical tagging is not just assigning stars chemically to a particular population, like the thin disk, thick disk or halo. Chemical tagging is intended to assign stars chemically to substructure which is no longer detectable kinematically. We are planning a large chemical tagging survey of about a million stars, using the new HERMES multi-object spectrometer on the AAT. The goal is to reconstruct the dispersed star-forming aggregates that built up the disk, thick disk and halo within about 5 kpc of the sun.

HERMES is a new high resolution multi-object spectrometer on the AAT. Its spectral resolution is about 28,000, with a high resolution mode with R = 50,000. It is fed by 400 fibers over a 2-degree field, and has 4 non-contiguous wavelength bands covering a total of about 1000Å. The four wavelength bands were chosen to include measurable lines of elements needed for chemical tagging. HERMES is scheduled for first light in late 2012. The HERMES chemical tagging survey will include stars brighter than V = 14 and has a strong synergy with Gaia: for the dwarf stars in the HERMES sample, the accurate (1%) parallaxes and proper motions will be invaluable for more detailed studies.

The fractional contribution of the different Galactic components to the HERMES sample will be about 78% thin disk stars, 17% thick disk stars and about 5% halo stars. About 70% of the stars will be dwarfs within about 1000 pc and 30% giants within about 5 kpc. About 9% of the thick disk stars and about 14% of the thin disk stars pass within our 1 kpc dwarf horizon. Assume that all of their formation aggregates are now azimuthally mixed right around the Galaxy, so that all of their formation sites are represented within our horizon. Simulations (Bland-Hawthorn & Freeman 2004) show that a complete random sample of about a million stars with V < 14 would allow detection of about 20 thick disk dwarfs from each of about 4500 star formation sites, and about 10 thin disk dwarfs from each of about 35,000 star formation sites. These estimates depend on the adopted mass spectrum of the formation sites. In combination with Gaia, HERMES will give the distribution of stars in the multi-dimensional{position, velocity, chemical} space, and isochrone ages for about 200,000 stars with V < 14. We would be interested to explore further what the HERMES survey can contribute to asteroseismology.

Some authors have argued that the thick disk may have formed from the debris of the huge and short-lived star formation clumps observed in disk galaxies at high redshift (e.g. Bournaud et al. 2009, Genzel et al. 2011). If this is correct, then only a small number of these huge building blocks would have been involved in the assembly of the thick disk, and their debris should be very easy to identify via chemical tagging techniques.

Chemical tagging in the inner regions of the Galactic disk will be of particular interest. We expect about 200,000 survey giants in the inner region of the Galaxy. The surviving old (> 1 Gyr) open clusters are all in the outer Galaxy, beyond a radius of 8 kpc. Young open clusters are seen in the inner Galaxy, but do not appear to survive the disruptive effects of the tidal field and giant molecular clouds in the inner regions. We expect to find the debris of many broken open and globular clusters in the inner disk. These will be good for chemical tagging recovery using the HERMES giants. The radial extent of the dispersal of individual broken clusters will provide an acute test of radial mixing theory within the disk. Another opportunity comes from the the Na/O anomaly, which is unique to globular clusters, and may help to identify the debris of disrupted globular clusters.

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