Published in International Journal of Modern Physics D, Volume 26, Issue 6, id. 1730012-223, 2017.
https://arxiv.org/abs/1701.01840

For a PDF version of the article, click here.

STATUS OF DARK MATTER IN THE UNIVERSE

Katherine Freese


Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA and
Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden


Abstract: Over the past few decades, a consensus picture has emerged in which roughly a quarter of the universe consists of dark matter. I begin with a review of the observational evidence for the existence of dark matter: rotation curves of galaxies, gravitational lensing measurements, hot gas in clusters, galaxy formation, primordial nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background observations. Then I discuss a number of anomalous signals in a variety of data sets that may point to discovery, though all of them are controversial. The annual modulation in the DAMA detector and/or the gamma-ray excess seen in the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope from the Galactic Center could be due to WIMPs; a 3.5 keV X-ray line from multiple sources could be due to sterile neutrinos; or the 511 keV line in INTEGRAL data could be due to MeV dark matter. All of these would require further confirmation in other experiments or data sets to be proven correct. In addition, a new line of research on dark stars is presented, which suggests that the first stars to exist in the universe were powered by dark matter heating rather than by fusion: the observational possibility of discovering dark matter in this way is discussed.


Keywords: Dark matter


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

DARK MATTER IN GALAXIES AND CLUSTERS
The Beginnings of the Dark Matter Problem and Rotation Curves
Gravitational Lensing
Hot Gas in Clusters
Bullet Cluster

COSMIC ABUNDANCES
The Cosmic Microwave Background
Primordial nucleosynthesis
Dark Energy

DARK MATTER CANDIDATES
MACHOs
Nonbaryonic Dark Matter
Axions
WIMPs

FOUR PRONGED APPROACH TO WIMP DETECTION
Production at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN
Direct Detection Experiments
Indirect Detection
Summary of WIMP Searches

DARK STARS
Three Criteria for Dark Matter Heating
Building up the Mass
Later stages: Capture
Supermassive Dark Stars
Dark Stars are Detectable in James Webb Space Telescope
Supermassive Black Holes
Pulsations

STERILE NEUTRINOS

WHAT'S HOT IN DARK MATTER

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

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