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V. Liccardo 1, M. Malheiro 1, M. S. Hussein 1,2,3, T. Frederico 1

1 ITA-Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Praça Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50 - Vila das Acácias, CEP 12.228-900 São José dos Campos - SP - Brasil
2 Instituto de Estudos Avançados, Universidade de São Paulo, C. P. 72012, 05.508-970 São Paulo - SP - Brazil
3 Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C. P. 66318, 05.314-970 São Paulo - SP - Brazil

Abstract: The origin of the elements has been a fascinating question that scientists have been trying to answer for the last seven decades. The formation of light elements in the primordial universe and heavier elements in the astrophysical sources occurs through nuclear reactions. We can say that nuclear processes are responsible for the production of energy and synthesis of elements in the various astrophysical sites. Thus, nuclear reactions have a determining role in the existence and evolution of several astrophysical environments, from the Sun to the spectacular explosions of supernovae. Nuclear astrophysics attempts to address the most basic and important questions of our existence and future. There are still many issues that are unresolved such as, how stars and our Galaxy have formed and how they evolve, how and where are the heaviest elements made, what is the abundance of nuclei in the universe and what is the nucleosynthesis output of the various production processes, why the amount of Lithium-7 observed is less than predicted. In this paper, we review our current understanding of the different astrophysical nuclear processes leading to the formation of chemical elements and particular attention is paid to the formation of heavy elements occurring during high-energy astrophysical events. Thanks to the recent multi-messenger observation of a binary neutron star merger, which also confirmed production of heavy elements, explosive scenarios such as short Gamma-ray bursts and the following Kilonovae are now strongly supported as nucleosynthesis sites.

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