|Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 1992. 30:
Copyright © 1992 by . All rights reserved
In this section we discuss the observable effects of a non-zero cosmological constant, deferring to Section 4 discussion of the present state of observational limits that derive from these effects. In some cases we are able to give formulas that are simpler than those found elsewhere in the literature. For other summaries of effects, see Kolb & Turner (1990), Charlton & Turner (1987), Felten & Isaacman (1986), and Weinberg (1972). Earlier compendiums include Sandage (1961a, b) and Refsdal et al (1967).