Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 1997. 35: 267-307
Copyright © 1997 by . All rights reserved

Contents Previous

REFERENCES

  1. Allen R, Shu F. 1979. Ap. J. 227:67
  2. Arp HC. 1965. Ap. J. 142:402
  3. Babul A, Rees MJ. 1989. MNRAS 255:346
  4. Babul A, Ferguson HC. 1996. Ap. J. 458:100
  5. Bahcall JN, Bergeron J, Boksenberg A, Hartig GF, Jannuzi BT, et al. 1993. Ap. J. Suppl. 87:1
  6. Bender R, Burstein D, Faber SM. 1993. Ap. J. 411:153
  7. Bergeron J. 1995. In ESO Workshop on Quasar Absorption Lines., ed. G Meylan, in press, p. 127-136. Dordrecht: Springer-Verlag
  8. Bergeron J, Boisse P. 1991. Astron. Astrophys. 243:344
  9. Bernstein GM, Nichol RG, Tyson AJ, Ulmer MP, Wittman D. 1995. Astron. J. 110:1507
  10. Bershady MA, SubbaRao MU, Szalay A, Koo DC, Kron RG, Hereld M. 1997. Submitted to Ap. J.
  11. Binggeli B, Sandage A, Tarenghi M. 1984. Astron. J. 89:64
  12. Binggeli B, Sandage A, Tammann GA. 1985. Astron. J. 90:1681
  13. Binggeli B, Sandage A, Tammann GA. 1988. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 26:509
  14. Binggeli B, Tarenghi M, Sandage A. 1990. Astron. Astrophys. 228:42
  15. Boroson TA. 1981. Ap. J. Suppl. 46:177
  16. Boroson TA, Salzer JJ, Trotter A. 1993. Ap. J. 412:524
  17. Bothun GD, 1985. Astron. J. 90:1982
  18. Bothun GD, Impey CD, Malin DF, Mould JR. 1987. Astron. J. 94:23
  19. Bothun GD, Schombert JM., Impey CD, Schneider SE. 1990. Ap.J. 360:427
  20. Bothun GD, Impey CD, Malin DF. 1991. Ap. J. 376:404
  21. Bosma A, Freeman KC. 1993. Astron. J. 106:1394
  22. Bouwens RJ, Silk J. 1996. Ap. J. Lett. 471:L19
  23. Briggs FH. 1990. Astron. J. 100:999
  24. Bristow PD, Phillipps S. 1994. MNRAS 267:13
  25. Broadhurst TJ, Ellis RS, Shanks TS. 1988. MNRAS 235:827
  26. Broeils AH. 1992. Dark and Visible Mass in Spiral Galaxies. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Groningen
  27. Bruzual GA, Charlot S. 1993. Ap. J. 405:538
  28. Burstein D, Bender R, Faber SM, Nolthenius R. 1995. Astron. Lett. Comm. 31:95
  29. Caldwell N, Bothun GD. 1987. Astron. J. 94:1126
  30. Capaccioli A, de Vaucouleurs G. 1983. Ap. J. Suppl. 52:465
  31. Carr BJ. 1994. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 32:531
  32. Cayette V, Kotanyi C, Balkowski C. 1993. Astron. J. 107:1003
  33. Cen R, Miralda-Escude J, Ostriker JP, Rauch M. 1994. Ap. J. Lett. 437:L9
  34. Cole S, Treyer M, Silk J. 1992. Ap. J. 385:9
  35. Copi CJ, Schramm DN, Turner MS. 1995. Sci 267:192
  36. Corbelli E, Salpeter, EE. 1993. Ap. J. 419:104
  37. Courteau S. 1996. Ap. J. Suppl. 103:363
  38. Cowie LL. 1988. In The Post-Recombination Universe, eds. N Kaiser, A Lazenby, p. 1-18. Dordtrect: Kluwer
  39. Cowie LL, Songaila A, Hu EM. 1991. Nature 354:460
  40. Cowie LL, Hu EM, Songaila A. 1995a. Nature 377:603
  41. Cowie LL, Hu EM, Songaila A. 1995b. Astron. J. 109:1522
  42. Cowie LL, Songaila A, Hu EM, Cohen JG. 1996. Astron. J. 112:839
  43. da Costa G, Nicolaci L, Geller MJ, Pellegrini PS, Latham DW, et al. 1994. Ap. J. Lett. 424:1
  44. Dalcanton JJ. 1993. Ap. J. Lett. 415:L87
  45. Dalcanton JJ. 1995. The Nature of Ultra-Low Surface Brightness Objects. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Princeton
  46. Dalcanton JJ, Schectman SA. 1996. Ap. J. Lett. 465:L9
  47. Dalcanton JJ, Spergel DN, Summers FJ. 1997a. Ap. J. 482: 659
  48. Dalcanton JJ, Spergel DN, Gunn JE, Schmidt M, Schneider DP. 1997b. Astron. J. 114: 635
  49. Davies JI. 1990. MNRAS 244:8
  50. Davies JI, Phillipps S, Cawson MGM, Disney MJ, Kibblewhite EJ. 1988. MNRAS 232:239
  51. Davies JI, Phillipps S, Disney MJ. 1990. MNRAS 244:385
  52. Dekel A, Silk J. 1986. Ap. J. 303:39
  53. de Blok WJG, van der Hulst JM, Bothun GD. 1995. MNRAS 274:235
  54. de Blok WJG, McGaugh, SS, van der Hulst JM. 1996. MNRAS 283:18
  55. de Jong RS. 1995. Spiral Galaxies: the light and color distributions in the optical and near-infrared. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Groningen
  56. de Jong RS, van der Kruit PC. 1994. Astro. Astrophys. Suppl. 106:451
  57. de Propris R, Pritchet CJ, Harris WE, McClure RD. 1995. Ap. J. 450:534
  58. de Vaucouleurs G, de Vaucouleurs A, Corwin HG, Buta R, Paturel G, Fouque P. 1991. Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies. New York: Springer-Verlag
  59. Dinshaw N, Foltz CB, Impey CD, Weymann RJ, Morris SL. 1995. Nature 373:223
  60. Disney MJ. 1976. Nature 263:573
  61. Disney MJ, Phillipps S. 1983. MNRAS 205:1253
  62. Disney MJ, Banks G. 1997. Submitted to MNRAS
  63. Dove JB, Shull JM. 1994. Ap. J. 423:196
  64. Driver SP, Phillipps S, Davies JI, Morgan I, Disney MJ. 1994a. MNRAS 268:393
  65. Driver SP, Phillipps S, Davies JI, Morgan I, Disney MJ. 1994b. MNRAS 266:155
  66. Driver SP, Windhorst RA, Ostrander EJ, Keel WC, Griffiths RE, Ratnatunga KU. 1995a. Ap. J. Lett. 449:L23
  67. Driver SP, Windhorst RAW, Griffiths RE. 1995b. Ap. J. 453:48
  68. Driver SP, Phillipps S. 1996. Ap. J. 469:529
  69. Ellis RS, Colless M, Broadhurst T, Heyl J, Glazebrook K. 1996. MNRAS 280:235
  70. Efstathiou G, Silk J. 1983. Fundamentals of Cosmic Physics 9:1
  71. Efstathiou G, Ellis RS, Peterson BA. 1988. MNRAS 232:431
  72. Efstathiou G, Bernstein G, Tyson JA, Katz N, Guhathakurta P. 1991. Ap. J. Lett. 380:L47
  73. Faber SM. 1982. In Astrophysical Cosmology ed. HA Bruck, GV Coyne, MS Longair, p. 191-215, Vatican: Pontifica Academia Scientarium
  74. Felten JE. 1977. Astron. J. 82:861
  75. Ferguson HC. 1989. Astron. J. 98:367
  76. Ferguson HC, Sandage A. 1988. Astron. J. 96:1520
  77. Ferguson HC, Binggeli B. 1994. Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 6:67
  78. Ferguson HC, McGaugh SS. 1995. Ap.J. 440:470
  79. Fish RA. 1964. Ap. J. 139:284
  80. Fisher JR, Tully RB. 1975. Astron. Astrophys. 44:151
  81. Fisher JR, Tully RB. 1977. Ap. J. Lett. 243:23
  82. Fisher JR, Tully RB. 1981. Ap. J. Suppl. 47:139
  83. Freedman WL, Madore BF, Kennicutt RC. 1997. In The Extragalactic Distance Scale. ed. M Livio, M Donohue, N Panagia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, in press
  84. Freeman KC. 1970. Ap. J. 160:811
  85. Fukagita M, Turner EL. 1991. MNRAS 253:99
  86. Gallagher JS, Hunter DA. 1984. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 22:37
  87. Giovanelli R, Haynes MP. 1989. Astron. J. 97:633
  88. Giovanelli R, Haynes MP. 1989. Ap. J. Lett. 346:L5
  89. Grogin NA, Narayan R. 1996. Ap. J. 464:92
  90. Gunn JE, Knapp GR. 1993. In Sky Surveys: Protostars to Protogalaxies. ed. BT Soifer, p. 267-280, San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific
  91. Gunn JE, Gott JR. 1972. Ap. J. 176:1
  92. Harrison ER. 1964. Nature 204:271
  93. Hawarden TG, Longmore AJ, Goss WM, Mebold U, Tritton SB. 1981. MNRAS 196:175
  94. Hernquist L, Katz N, Weinberg DH, Miralda-Escude J. 1996. Ap. J. Lett. 457:L51
  95. Hoffman GL, Lewis BM. Helou G, Salpeter EE, Williams HL. 1989. Ap. J. Suppl. 69:65
  96. Hoffman Y, Silk J, Wyse RFG. 1992. Ap. J. Lett. 388:13
  97. Holmberg E. 1975. In Stars and Stellar Systems, Vol. 9. ed. A Sandage, M Sandage, J Kristian, p. 123, Chicago: University of Chicago Press
  98. Hubble E. 1936. In The Realm of the Nebulae. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press
  99. Im M, Casretano S, Griffiths RE, Ratnatunga JU, Tyson JA. 1995a. Ap. J. 441:494
  100. Im M, Ratnatunga KU, Griffiths RE, Casertano S. 1995b. Ap. J. Lett. 445:15
  101. Impey CD, Bothun GD, Malin DF. 1988. Ap. J. 330:634
  102. Impey CD, Bothun GD. 1989. Ap.J 341:89
  103. Impey CD, Sprayberry D, Irwin MJ, Bothun GD. 1996. Ap. J. Suppl. 105:209
  104. Irwin MJ, Davies JI, Disney MJ, Phillipps S. 1990a. MNRAS 245:289
  105. Irwin MJ, Bunclark PS, Bridgeland MT, McMahon RG. 1990b. MNRAS 244:16P
  106. Irwin MJ, Hatzidimitriou D. 1995. MNRAS 277:1354
  107. Kaiser N. 1984. Ap. J. Lett. 284:L9
  108. Kennicutt RC. 1983. Ap. J. 272:54
  109. Kennicutt RC. 1989. Ap. J. 344:685
  110. Knezek PM. 1993. The Stellar and Gaseous Content of Massive Low Surface Brightness Galaxies. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Massachusetts
  111. Koo DC, Gronwall C, Bruzual G. 1993. Ap. J. Lett. 415:L21
  112. Kormendy J. 1977. Ap. J. 217:406
  113. Kormendy J. 1985. Ap. J. 295:73
  114. Kron RG. 1982. Vistas in Astronomy 26:37
  115. Lanzetta KM. Wolfe AM, Turnshek DA, Lu L, McMahon RG, Hazard C. 1991. Ap. J. Suppl. 77:1
  116. Lanzetta KM, Wolfe AM, Turnshek DA. 1995. Ap. J. 440:435
  117. Lilly SJ, Cowie LL, Gardner JP. 1991. Ap. J. 369:79
  118. Lilly SJ. 1993. Ap. J. 411:501
  119. Lilly SJ, LeFevre O, Hammer F, Crampton D. 1996. Ap. J. Lett. 460:1
  120. Lin H, Kirshner RP, Schectman SA, Landy SD, Oemler A. 1996. Ap. J. 464:60
  121. Longmore AJ, Hawarden TG, Goss WM, Mebold U, Webster BL. 1982. MNRAS 200:325
  122. Loveday J, Peterson BA, Efstathiou G. Maddox SJ. 1992. Ap. J. 390:338
  123. Malaney P, Mathews G. 1993. Phys. Rep. 229:147
  124. Malin DF. 1978. Nature 276:591
  125. Maloney P. 1993. Ap.J. 414:41
  126. Marzke RO, Huchra JP, Geller MJ. 1994a. Ap. J. 428:43
  127. Marzke RO, Geller MJ, Huchra JP, Corwin Jr HG. 1994b. Astron. J. 108:437
  128. Marzke RO, da Costa LN. 1997. Astron. J. 113:185
  129. Mateo M. 1996. In Formation of the Galactic Halo, Inside and Out. ed. H Morrison, A Sarajedini, p. 434. San Francisco: Astron. Soc. Pac.
  130. Mattila K. 1990. In The Galactic and Extragalactic Background Radiation. ed. S Bowyer, C Leinert, p. 257, Dordrecht: Kluwer
  131. Mattila K, Leinart Ch, Schnur G. 1991. In The Early Observable Universe from Diffuse Backgrounds. ed. B Rocca-Volmerange, JM Deharvang, J Tran Thanh Van, p. 133. Editions Frontieres
  132. McGaugh SS. 1992. The Physical Properties of Low Surface Brightness Galaxies. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  133. McGaugh SS. 1994a. Ap. J. 426:135
  134. McGaugh SS. 1994b. Nature 367:538
  135. McGaugh SS, Bothun GD. 1994. Astron. J. 107:530
  136. McGaugh SS, Bothun GD, Schombert JM. 1995. Astron. J. 110:573
  137. McGaugh SS. 1996. MNRAS 280:337
  138. Meurs EJA, Wilson AS. 1984. Astron. Astrophys. 136:206
  139. Meylan G. 1995. Editor, ESO Workshop on Quasar Absorption Lines. Dordrecht: Springer-Verlag, in press
  140. Mo HJ, McGaugh SS, Bothun GD. 1994. MNRAS 267:129
  141. Morgan I, Driver SP. 1995. In Extragalactic Background Radiation. ed. D Calzetti, M Livio, P Madau, p. 285-288. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  142. Morris SL, Weymann RJ, Savage BD, Gilliland RL. 1991. Ap. J. Lett. 377:L21
  143. Nilson PN. 1973. Uppsala General Catalog of Galaxies. Uppsala, Finland: Uppsala Astronomical Observatory
  144. O'Connell RW. 1987. Astron. J. 94:876
  145. O'Neil K, Bothun GD, Smith EP, Stecher TP. 1996. Astron. J. 112:431
  146. O'Neil K, Bothun GD, Cornell M, Impey CD. 1997. Submitted to Astron. J.
  147. Peebles PJE, Schramm D, Turner E, Kron R. 1991. Nature 352:769
  148. Peebles PJE. 1993. In Principles of Physical Cosmology. p. 391. Princeton:Princeton University Press
  149. Persic M, Salucci P. 1990. MNRAS 245:577
  150. Persic M, Salucci P. 1992. MNRAS 258:14P
  151. Petitjean P, Mucket JP, Kates RE. 1995. Astron. Astrophys. 295:L9
  152. Phillipps S, Fong R, Shanks T. 1981. MNRAS 194:49
  153. Phillipps S, Disney MJ. 1985. Astron. Astrophys. 148:234
  154. Phillipps S, Disney MJ, Kibblewhite EJ, Cawson MG. 1987. MNRAS 229:505
  155. Phillipps S, Driver SP. 1995. MNRAS 274:832
  156. Phillipps S, Davies JI, Disney MJ. 1990. MNRAS 242:235
  157. Phillipps S, Disney MJ, Davies JI. 1993. MNRAS 260:453
  158. Pickering TE, Impey CD, van Gorkom J, Bothun GD. 1997. Ap. J. 114: 1858
  159. Press WH, Schechter PL. 1974. Ap. J. 330:579
  160. Quirk WJ. 1972. Ap. J. Lett. 176:9
  161. Rao SM, Briggs FH. 1993. Ap.J. 419:515
  162. Rao SM, Turnshek DA, Briggs FH. 1995. Ap. J. 449:488
  163. Rauch M, Haehnelt MG. 1995. MNRAS 275:L76
  164. Rauch M, Weymann RJ, Morris SL. 1996. Ap. J. 458:518
  165. Reaves G. 1956. Astron. J. 61:69
  166. Romanishin W, Krumm N, Salpeter E, Knapp G, Strom KM, Strom SE. 1982. Ap. J. 263:94
  167. Romanishin W, Strom KM, Strom SE. 1983. Ap. J. Suppl. 53: 105
  168. Saha A, Sandage A, Labhardt L, Tammann GA, Macchetto FD, Panagia N. 1996. Ap. J. Suppl. 107:693
  169. Salzer JJ. 1989. Ap. J. 347:152
  170. Sandage A, Tammann G, Yahil A. 1979. Ap. J. 232:352
  171. Sandage A, Binggeli B, Tammann GA. 1985. Astron. J. 90:1759
  172. Sandage A. 1988. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 26:561
  173. Sargent WLW, Steidel CC, Boksenberg A. 1988. Ap. J. 334:22
  174. Schade DJ, Ferguson HC. 1994. MNRAS 267:889
  175. Schechter P. 1976. Ap. J. 203:297
  176. Schectman SA. 1973. Ap .J. 188:233
  177. Schectman SA. 1974. Ap. J. 179:681
  178. Schombert JM, Bothun GD. 1988. Astron. J. 95:1389
  179. Schombert JM. Bothun GD, Schneider SE, McGaugh SS. 1992. Astron. J. 103:1107
  180. Schombert JM, Pildis RA, Eder JA, Oemler A. 1995. Astron. J. 110:2067
  181. Schneider SE, Thuan TX, Magri C, Wadiak JE. 1990. Ap. J. Suppl. 72:245
  182. Schneider SE, Thuan TX, Magnum JG, Miller J. 1992. Ap. J. Suppl. 81:5
  183. Schneider SE. 1996. In Minnesota Lectures on Extragalactic HI. ed. E Skillman, p. 323-348. San Francisco: Astron. Soc. Pac.
  184. Schwartzenberg JM, Phillipps S, Smith RM, Couch WJ, Boyle BJ. 1995a. MNRAS 275:121
  185. Schwartzenberg JM, Phillipps S, Parker QA. 1995b. Astron. Astrophys. 293:332
  186. Sprayberry D, Impey CD, Irwin MJ, McMahon RG, Bothun GD. 1993. Ap. J. 417:114
  187. Sprayberry D, Impey CD, Bothun GD, Irwin MJ. 1995a. Astron. J. 109:558
  188. Sprayberry D, Bernstein GM, Impey CD, Bothun GD. 1995b. Ap. J. 438:72
  189. Sprayberry D, Impey CD, Irwin MJ. 1996. Ap. J. 463:535
  190. Sprayberry D, Impey CD, Irwin MJ, Bothun GD. 1997. Ap. J., 482: 104
  191. Steidel CC, Sargent WLW. 1992. Ap. J. Suppl. 80:1
  192. Steidel CC, Dickinson M. 1992. Ap. J 394:81
  193. Steidel CC. 1993. In The Evolution of Galaxies and Their Environment, 3rd Teton Summer School, ed. JM Shull, H Thronson, p. 263-294. Dordtrecht: Kluwer
  194. Storrie-Lombardi LJ, McMahon RG, Irwin MJ, Hazard C. 1994. Ap. J. Lett. 427:L13
  195. Szomoru A, Guhathakurta P, van Gorkom JH, Knapen JH, Weinberg DH, Fruchter AS. 1994. Astron. J. 108:491
  196. Toomre A. 1964. Ap. J 139:1217
  197. Trentham N. 1997. MNRAS in press
  198. Turner JA, Phillipps S, Davies JI, Disney MJ. 1993. MNRAS 261:39
  199. Tyson AJ. 1988a. Astron. J. 96:1
  200. Tyson AJ. 1995. In Extragalactic Background Radiation. ed. D Calzetti, M Livio, P Madau, p. 103-128. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  201. Tyson AJ, Jarvis JF. 1979. Ap. J. Lett. 230:L153
  202. Tyson ND. 1988b. Ap. J. Lett. 329:L57
  203. Tyson ND, Scalo JM. 1988. Ap. J. 329:618
  204. Väisänen P. 1996. Astron. Astrophys. 315:21
  205. van den Bergh S. 1959. Publ. David Dunlap Obs. 2:147
  206. van der Hulst JM, Skillman, ED, Smith TR, Bothun GD, McGaugh SS, de Blok, WJG. 1993. Astron. J. 106:548
  207. van der Kruit PC. 1987. Astron. Astrophys. 173:59
  208. van Gorkom J, Cornwell T, van Albada TS, Sancisi R. 1997. ApJ, in press
  209. Walker TP, Steigman G, Schramm DN, Olive KA, Kang H-S. 1991. Ap. J. 376:51
  210. Warmels RH. 1985. HI Properties of Spiral Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. Ph.D. Thesis. Groningen University
  211. Weinberg DH, Szomoru A, Guhathakurta P, van Gorkom JH. 1991. Ap. J. Lett. 372:L13
  212. White SDM, Frenk CS. 1991. Ap. J. 379:52
  213. White SDM, Navarro JF, Evrard AE, Frenk CS. 1993. Nature 366:429
  214. Wright EL. 1985. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 97:451
  215. York DG, Dopita M, Green RF, Bechtold JB. 1986. Ap. J. 311:610
  216. Zucca E. 1997. In 37th Herstmonceux Conference on HST and the High Redshift Universe, ed. M Pettini. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, in press
  217. Zwaan MA, van der Hulst JM, de Blok WJG, McGaugh SS. 1995. MNRAS 273:L35
  218. Zwicky F. 1957. In Morphological Astronomy. New York: Springer-Verlag

Contents Previous