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It is quite likely that other particles (in addition to gamma-rays) are emitted in these events. Let fxgamma be the ratio of energy emitted in other particles relative to gamma-rays. These particles will appear as a burst accompanying the GRB. The total fluence of a "typical" GRB observed by BATSE, Fgamma is 10-7 ergs/cm2, and the fluence of a "strong" burst is about hundred times larger. Therefore we should expect accompanying bursts with typical fluences of:

Equation 137 (137)

where Ex is the energy of these particles. This burst will be spread in time and delayed relative to the GRB if the particles do not move at the speed of light. Relativistic time delay will be significant (larger than 10 seconds) if the particles are not massless and their Lorentz factor is smaller than 108! similarly a deflection angle of 10-8 will cause a significant time delay.

In addition to the prompt burst we should expect a continuous background of these particles. With one 1051 ergs GRB per 106 years per galaxy we expect ~ 104 events per galaxy in a Hubble time (provided of course that the event rate is constant in time). This corresponds to a background flux of

Equation 138 (138)

For any specific particle that could be produced one should calculate the ratio fxgamma and then compare the expected fluxes with fluxes from other sources and with the capabilities of current detectors. One should distinguish between two types of predictions: (i) Predictions of the generic fireball model which include low energy cosmic rays [220], UCHERs [294, 295, 296] and high energy neutrinos [297] and (ii) Predictions of specific models and in particular the NS2M model. These include low energy neutrinos [277] and gravitational waves [35, 301].

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