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11.1. Cosmic Rays

Already in 1990, Shemi & Piran [220] pointed out that fireball model is closely related to Cosmic Rays. A "standard" fireball model involved the acceleration of ~ 10-7 Modot of baryons to a typical energy of 100 GeV per baryon. Protons that leak out of the fireball will become low energy cosmic rays. However, a comparison of the GRB rate (one per 106 years per galaxy) with the observed low energy cosmic rays flux, suggests that even if fCR-gamma approx 1 this will amount only to 1% to 10% of the observed cosmic ray flux at these energies. Cosmic rays are believed to be produced by SNRs. Since supernovae are ten thousand times more frequent than GRBs, unless GRBs are much more efficient in producing Cosmic Rays in some specific energy range their contribution will be swamped by the SNR contribution.