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The success of X-ray surveys in the selection and understanding of clusters of galaxies over the past four decades has been remarkable. The statistical properties of X-ray selected samples of clusters have been used to determine cosmological parameters, and the detail found in individual clusters can be used to understand the evolution of that cluster. Current and planned surveys will build on these previous studies and will undoubtedly reveal further complexity in the intracluster medium, thereby refining our understanding of the astrophysics of these systems.