High Energy Physics - Phenomenology (hep-ph); Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics.
astro-ph/1006.2483

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DARK MATTER: A PRIMER

Katherine Garrett & Gintaras Duda


Department of Physics, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178, USA


Abstract. Dark matter is one of the greatest unsolved mysteries in cosmology at the present time. About 80% of the universe's gravitating matter is non-luminous, and its nature and distribution are for the most part unknown. In this paper, we will outline the history, astrophysical evidence, candidates, and detection methods of dark matter, with the goal to give the reader an accessible but rigorous introduction to the puzzle of dark matter. This review targets advanced students and researchers new to the field of dark matter, and includes an extensive list of references for further study.


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

HISTORY AND EARLY INDICATIONS

MODERN UNDERSTANDING AND EVIDENCE
Microlensing
Cosmological Evidence
Most recent evidence

PARTICLE CANDIDATES
The Standard Model and the Neutrino
Problems of the Standard Model

SUPERSYMMETRY

EXOTIC CANDIDATES

PRODUCTION IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE
Review of Big Bang Cosmology
Thermodynamics in the Early Universe
Particle Production and Relic Density: The Boltzmann Equation

DETECTION SCHEMES
Production in Accelerators
Direct Detection
Indirect Detection
Gamma-rays
Neutrinos
Antimatter

CONCLUSION AND CHALLENGES

APPENDIX: MOND THEORIES AS ALTERNATIVES TO DARK MATTER

REFERENCES

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