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  36. We have multiplied the measured value of Dv from each of the BAO experiments by a factor of 1.0275 to correct from the convention of[35] to the more accurate rs definition used by [38] (see Sec. 5.2 of that paper for full details).

  37. More precisely, throughout the paper we quote mean values computed from the posterior p.d.f., which we refer to as "best-fit" for brevity

  38. Planck Collaboration, arXiv:1303.5076. MCMC chains are obtained from the Planck public web site and assume neutrinos with Neff = 3.046 and mass approximated as a single eigenstate of 0.06 eV

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  46. We have plotted only the best constrained σ8 - Ωm combination, but some of these studies also break the degeneracy of the two parameters (e.g., through redshift dependence) and produce closed contours even in the absence of external data

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  49. We have taken these values from Table 3 of Planck Collab. XX, Astron & Astrophys. in press, arXiv:1303.5080. The original sources for CPPP and MaxBCG are, respectively, A. Vikhlinin, A.V. Kravtsov, R.A. Burenin, H. Ebeling, W.R. Forman, A. Hornstrup, C. Jones, and S.S. Murray et al., Astrophys. J. 692, 1060 (2009); E. Rozo et al. [DSDD Collaboration], Astrophys. J. 708, 645 (2010)

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  52. 2-page summaries of many of these projects, plus references to more extensive documentation, can be found in the Snowmass 2013 report on Facilities for Dark Energy Investigations, by D. Weinberg, D. Bard, K. Dawson, O. Doré, J. Frieman, K. Gebhardt, M. Levi, and J. Rhodes, arXiv:1309.5380

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