Published in "Galactic Bulges", Astrophysics and Space Science Library, Volume 418. ISBN 978-3-319-19377-9. Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2016, p. 413.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1501.03603

For a PDF version of the article, click here.

EXPLAINING THE FORMATION OF BULGES WITH MOND

Françoise Combes


Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS, 61 Av. de l’Observatoire, F-75014, Paris, France


Abstract: In the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, bulges easily form through galaxy mergers, either major or minor, or through clumpy disks in the early universe, where clumps are driven to the center by dynamical friction. Also pseudo-bulges, with a more disky morphology and kinematics, can form more slowly through secular evolution of a bar, where resonant stars are elevated out of the plane, in a peanut/box shape. As a result, in CDM cosmological simulations, it is very difficult to find a bulgeless galaxy, while they are observed very frequently in the local universe. A different picture emerges in alternative models of the missing mass problem. In MOND (MOdified Newtonian Dynamics), galaxy mergers are much less frequent, since the absence of dark matter halos reduces the dynamical friction between two galaxies. Also, while clumpy galaxies lead to rapid classical bulge formation in CDM, the inefficient dynamical friction with MOND in the early-universe galaxies prevents the clumps to coalesce together in the center to form spheroids. This leads to less frequent and less massive classical bulges. Bars in MOND are more frequent and stronger, and have a more constant pattern speed, which modifies significantly the pseudo-bulge morphology. The fraction of pseudo-bulges is expected to be dominant in MOND.


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

GALAXY MERGERS
Major mergers in MOND
Dynamical friction

BARS
Disk stability in MOND
Pattern speed evolution
Bulges and pseudo-bulges

CLUMPY DISKS

CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

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