Molecules in Galaxies

Reviews:

  1. Morris, M., & Rickard, L.J., Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 20 (1982) 517.
  2. Mauersberger, R., Henkel, C., & Schilke, P., Astrophys. Space Sci. 156 (1989) 263.
  3. Sage, L.J., Share, S.N., & Solomon, P.M., Astrophys. J. 352 (1990) 422.
  4. Hughes, D.H., Appleton, P.N., & Schombert, J.M., Astrophys. J. 370 (1991) 176.
  5. Young, J.S., & Scoville, N.Z., Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 29 (1991) 581.

Catalogs of galaxies observed in CO (complete up to 1989) have been published by Verter [Verter, F., Ap. J. Suppl., 57, 261, 1985; Verter, F., Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 102, 1281, 1990]. Conference Proceedings include [Windows on Galaxies (G. Fabbiano, J.S. Gallagher, A. Renzini, eds.), ASSI 160, Dordrecht, Kluwer (1990)] and [Dynamics of Galaxies and their Molecular Cloud Distributions (F. Combes & F. Casoli, eds.), Int. Astron. Union Symp. 146, Dordrecht: Kluwer (1991)].

Catalog of Published CO Surveys: [Young, J.S., & Scoville, N.Z., Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 29 (1991) 581].

CO Surveys:

  1. Douglas, N.G., Radford, S.J.E., Roland, J., & Webb, J.K., Astron. Astrophys. 262 (1992) 8.
  2. Braine, J., & Combes, F., Astron. Astrophys. 269 (1993) 7.
  3. Braine, J., Combes, F., Casoli, F., Dupraz, C., Gerin, M., Klein, & U., Wielebinski, R., Brouillet, N., Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 97 (1993) 887.
  4. Sage, L.J., Astron. Astrophys. 272 (1993) 123.
  5. Devereux, N., Taniguchi, Y., Sanders, D.B., Nakai, M., & Young, J.S., Astron. J. 107 (1994) 2006.
  6. Bajaja, E., Wielebinski, R., Reuter, H.P., Harnett, J.I., & Hummel, E., Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 114 (1995) 147.
  7. Helfer, T.I., & Blitz, L., Astrophys. J. 450 (1995) 90.
  8. Young, J.S., Xie, S., Tacconi, L., Knezek, P., Viscuso, P., Tacconi-Garman, L., Scoville, N., Schneider, S., Schloerb, F.P., Lord, S., Lesser, A., Kenney, J., Huang, Y., Devereux, N., Claussen, M., Case, J., Carpenter, J., Berry, M., & Allen, L., Astron. J. Suppl. 98 (1995) 219.

Catalog of CO Studies in Individual Galaxies: [Young, J.S., & Scoville, N.Z., Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 29 (1991) 581].

CO Observations of Individual Galaxies:

  1. Ho, R.T.P., Martin, R.N., Henkel, C., & Turner, J.L., Astrophys. J. 320 (1987) 665.
  2. Phillips, T.G., Ellison, B.N., Keene, J.B., Leighton, R.B., Howard, R.J., Masson, C.R., Sanders, D.B., Veidt, B., & Young, K., Astrophys. J. 322 (1987) L73.
  3. Vogel, S.N., Boulanger, F., & Ball, R., Astrophys. J. 321 (1987) L149.
  4. Brouillet, N., Baudry, A., & Combes, F., Astron. Astrophys. 196 (1988) L17.
  5. Carzian, B., Mundy, L.G., & Scoville, N.Z., Astrophys. J. 333 (1988) 157.
  6. Casoli, F., & Combes, F., Astron. Astrophys. 198 (1988) 43.
  7. Combes, F., Dupraz, C., Casoli, F., & Pagani, L., Astron. Astrophys. 203 (1988) L9.
  8. Gerin, M., Nakai, N., & Combes, F., Astron. Astrophys. 203 (1988) 44.
  9. Lada, C.J., Margulis, M., Sofue, Y., Nakai, N., & Handa, T., Astrophys. J. 328 (1988) 143.
  10. Ohta, K., Sasaki, M., & Saito, M., Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan. 40 (1988) 653.
  11. Phillips, S., Astron. Astrophys. 194 (1988) 77.
  12. Sandquist, A., Elfhag, T., & Jorsater, S., Astron. Astrophys. 201 (1988) 223.
  13. Sofue, Y., Doi, M., Ishizuki, S., Nakai, N., & Handa, T, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan. 40 (1988) 511.
  14. Thronson, H.A., Hunter, D.A., & Telesco, C.M., Astrophys. J. 334 (1988) 105.
  15. Weliachew, L., Casoli, F., & Combes, F., Astron. Astrophys. 199 (1988) 29.
  16. Young, J.S., Claussen, M.J., Kleinmann, S.G., Rubin, V.C., & Scoville, N., Astrophys. J. 331 (1988) L81.
  17. Young, J.S., Claussen, M.J., & Scoville, N.Z., Astrophys. J. 324 (1988) 115.
  18. Adler, D.S., & Liszt, H.S., Astrophys. J. 339 (1989) 836.
  19. Dettmar, R., & Heidhausen, A., Astrophys. J. 344 (1989) L61.
  20. Kaufman, M., Elmegreen, D.M., & Bash, F.N., Astrophys. J. 345 (1989) 697.
  21. Phillips, J.P., & Mamparo, A., Astrophys. Space Sci. 156 (1989) 257.
  22. Phillips, J.P., & Mamparo, A., Astron. Astrophys. 218 (1989) 24.
  23. Sage, L.J., Astrophys. J. 344 (1989) 200.
  24. Sandquist, A., Elfhag, T., & Lindblad, P.O., Astron. Astrophys. 218 (1989) 39.
  25. Sofue, Y., Doi, M., Krause, M., Nakai, N., & Handa, T., Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan. 41 (1989) 113.
  26. Sofue, Y., Handa, T., & Nakai, N., Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan. 41 (1989) 937.
  27. Tacconi, L.J., & Young, J.S., Astrophys. J. Suppl. 71 (1989) 455.
  28. Verter, F., & Rickard, L.J., Astron. Astrophys. 225 (1989) 27.
  29. Wilson, C.D., & Scoville, N., Astrophys. J. 347 (1989) 743.
  30. Eckart, A., Downes, D., Genzel, R., Harris, A.I., Jaffe, D.T., & Wild, W., Astrophys. J. 348 (1990) 434.
  31. England, M.N., Gottesman, S.T., & Hunter Jr., J.H., Astrophys. J. 348 (1990) 456.
  32. Henkel, C., Whiteoak, J.B., Nyman, L.A., & Harju, J., Astron. Astrophys. 230 (1990) L5.
  33. Lester, D.F., & Thompson, K.L., Astrophys. J. 348 (1990) L49.
  34. Loiseau, N., Nakai, N., Sofue, Y., Wielebinski, R., & Reuter, H.P., Astron. Astrophys. 228 (1990) 331.
  35. Claussen, M.J., & Sahai, R., Astron. J. 103 (1992) 1134.
  36. Devereux, N.A., & Young, J.S., Astron. J. 103 (1992) 1536.
  37. Handa, T., Sofue, Y., Ikeuchi, S., Kawabe, R., & Ishizuki, S., Pub. Astron. Soc. Japan. 44 (1992) L227.
  38. Irwin, J.A., & Avery, L.W., Astrophys. J. 388 (1992) 328.
  39. Irwin, J.A., & Sofuem Y., Astrophys. J. 396 (1992) L75.
  40. Kaneko, N., Morita, K., Fukui, Y., Takahashi, N., Sugitani, K., Nakai, N., & Morita, K.-I., Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan. 44 (1992) 341.
  41. Sofue, Y., Irwin, J.A., Pub. Astron. Soc. Japan. 44 (1992) 353.
  42. Sofue, Y., Reuter, H.P., Krause, M., Wielebinski, R., & Nakai, N., Astrophys. J. 395 (1992) 126.
  43. Turner, J.L., & Hurt, R.L., Astrophys. J. 384 (1992) 72.
  44. Wang, Z., Schweizer, F., & Scoville, N.Z., Astrophys. J. 396 (1992) 510.
  45. Wrobel, J.M., & Kenney, J.D.P., Astrophys. J. 399 (1992) 94.
  46. Yasuda, N., Fujisawa, K., Sofue, Y., Taniguchi, Y., Nakai, N., & Wakamatsu, K., Pub. Astron. Soc. Japan. 44 (1992) 1.
  47. Berkhuijsen, E.M., Bajaja, E., & Beck, R., Astron. Astrophys. 279 (1993) 359.
  48. Braine, J., Combes, F., & van Driel, W., Astron. Astrophys. 280 (1993) 451.
  49. Casoli, F., & Gerin, M., Astron. Astrophys. 279 (1993) L41.
  50. Dahlem, M., Golla, G., Whiteoak, J.B., Wielebinski, R., Huttemeister, S., & Henkel, C., Astron. Astrophys. 270 (1993) 29.
  51. Dame, T.M., Koper, E., Israel, F.P., & Thaddeus, P., Astrophys. J. 418 (1993) 730.
  52. Downes, D., Solomon, P.M., & Radford, S.J.E., Astrophys. J. 414 (1993) L13.
  53. Kikumoto, T., Taniguchi, Y., Suzuki, M., & Tomisaka, K., Astron. J. 106 (1993) 466.
  54. Rand, R.J., Astrophys. J. 404 (1993) 593.
  55. Scoville, N.Z., Thakkar, D., Carlstrom, J.E., & Sargent, A.I., Astrophys. J. 404 (1993) L59.
  56. Sofue, Y., & Nakai, N., Pub. Astron. Soc. Japan. 45 (1993) 139.
  57. Sofue, Y., & Yoshida, S, Astrophys. J. 417 (1993) L63.
  58. Turner, J.L., Hurt, R.L., & Hudson, D.Y., Astrophys. J. 413 (1993) L19.
  59. Wright, M.C.H., Ishizuki, S., Turner, J.L., Ho, P.T.P., & Lo, K.Y., Astrophys. J. 406 (1993) 470.
  60. Aalto, S., Booth, R.S., Black, J.H., Koribalski, B., & Wielebinski, R., Astron. Astrophys. 286 (1994) 365.
  61. Baas, F., Israel, F.P., & Koorneef, J., Astron. Astrophys. 284 (1994) 403.
  62. Goudfrooij, P., de Jong, T., Hansen, L., & Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 271 (1994) 833.
  63. Henkel, C., Whiteoak, J.B., & Mauersberger, R., Astron. Astrophys. 284 (1994) 17.
  64. Jaffe, W., & McNamara, D.R., Astrophys. J. 434 (1994) 110.
  65. Nakai, N., Kuno, N., Handa, T., & Sofue, Y., Pub. Astron. Soc. Japan. 46 (1994) 527.
  66. Sofue, Y., & Nakai, N., Pub. Astron. Soc. Japan. 46 (1994) 147.
  67. Statler, T.S., & Fry, A.M., Astrophys. J. 425 (1994) 481.
  68. Szomoru, A., Guhathakurta, P., van Gorkom, J.H., Knapen, J.H., Weinberg, D.M., & Fruchter, A., Astron. J. 108 (1994) 491.
  69. Wilson, C.D., Astrophys. J. 434 (1994) L11.
  70. Wilson, C.D., & Walker, C.E., Astrophys. J. 432 (1994) 148.
  71. Allen, R.J., Bourlot, J.L., Lequeux, J., Pineau des Forets, G., & Roueff, E., Astrophys. J. 444 (1995) 157.
  72. Braun, R., Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 114 (1995) 409.
  73. Higdon, J.L., Smith, B.J., Lord, S.D., & Rand, R.J., Astrophys. J. 438 (1995) L79.
  74. Hoffman, G.L., Lewis, B.M., & Salpeter, E.E., Astrophys. J. 441 (1995) 28.
  75. Loinard, L., Allen, R.J., & Lequeux, J., Astron. Astrophys. 301 (1995) 68.
  76. Mulder, P.S., van Driel, W., & Braine, J., Astron. Astrophys. 300 (1995) 687.
  77. Sandquist, A., Joersaeter, S., & Lindblad, P.O., Astron. Astrophys. 295 (1995) 585.
  78. Sempere, M.J., Combes, F., & Casoli, F., Astron. Astrophys. 299 (1995) 371.

CO in Spiral Galaxies:

  1. Stark, A.A., Elmegreen, B.G., & Chance, D., Astrophys. J. 322 (1987) 64.
  2. Verter, F., Astrophys. J. Suppl. 65 (1987) 555.
  3. Sage, L.J., Share, S.N., & Solomon, P.M., Astrophys. J. 352 (1990) 422.

CO in Irregular Galaxies:

  1. Tacconi, L.J., & Young, J.S., Astrophys. J. 322 (1987) 681.
  2. Ohta, K., Sasaki, M., Yamada, T., Saito, M., & Nakai, N., Pub. Astron. Soc. Japan. 44 (1992) 585.
  3. Wilson, C.D., & Scoville, N., Astrophys. J. 385 (1992) 512.
  4. Hoffman, G.L., Lu, N.Y., Salpeter, E.E., Forhat, B., Lamphier, C., & Roos, T., Astron. J. 106 (1993) 39.
  5. Lequeux, J., Le Bourlot, J., Des Forets, G.P., Roueff, E., Boulanger, F., & Rubio, M., Astron. Astrophys. 292 (1994) 371.
  6. Bottema, R., Astron. Astrophys. 295 (1995) 605.
  7. Taramopoulos, A., Garwood, R., Briggs, F.H., & Wolfe, A.M., Astron. J. 109 (1995) 980.
  8. Verter, F., & Hodge, P., Astrophys. J. 446 (1995) 616.

CO in Early-Type Galaxies:

  1. Sage, L.J., & Wrobel, J.M., Astrophys. J. 344 (1989) 204.
  2. Thronson, H.A., Hunter, D.A., Casey, S., Latter, W.B., & Harper, D.A., Astrophys. J. 339 (1989) 803.
  3. Wiklind, T., & Henkel, C., Astron. Astrophys. 227 (1990) 394.
  4. Welch, G.A., & Mitchell, G.F., Astrophys. J. 427 (1994) 770.
  5. Taniguchi, Y., Murayama, T., Nakai, N., Susuki, M., & Kameya, O., Astron. J. 108 (1994) 468.
  6. Wiklind, T., Combes, F., & Henkel, C., Astron. Astrophys. 297 (1995) 643.

CO in Elliptical Galaxies:

  1. Hoffman, G.L., Helou, G., & Salpeter, E.E., Astrophys. J. 324 (1988) 75.
  2. Gordon, M.A., Astrophys. J. 350 (1990) L29.
  3. Wang, Z., Kenney, J.D.P., & Ishizuki, S., Astron. J. 104 (1992) 2097.
  4. Wiklind, T., & Henkel, C., Astron. Astrophys. 257 (1992) 437.
  5. Sofue, Y., & Wakamatsu, K., Pub. Astron. Soc. Japan. 45 (1993) 529.
  6. Huchtmeier, W.K., Bregman, J.N., Hogg, D.E., & Roberts, M.S., Astron. Astrophys. 281 (1994) 327.
  7. Li, J.G., Seaquist, E.R., Wang, Z., & Sage, L.J., Astron. J. 107 (1994) 90.

CO in Interacting Galaxies:

  1. Casoli, F., Combes, F., Dupraz, C., Gerda, M., & Encrenaz, P., Astron. Astrophys. 192 (1988) L17.
  2. Sargent, A.I., Sanders, D.B., & Phillips, T.G., Astrophys. J. 346 (1989) L9.
  3. Dupraz, C., Casoli, F., Combes, F., & Kazes, I., Astron. Astrophys. 228 (1990) L5.
  4. Stanford, S.A., Sargent, A.I., & Sanders, D.B., Astrophys. J. 349 (1990) 492.
  5. Sofue, Y., Wakamatsu, K., Taniguchi, Y., & Nakai, N., Pub. Astron. Soc. Japan. 45 (1993) 43.

CO in Polar-Ring Galaxies:

  1. Combes, F., Braine, J., Casoli, F., Gerin, M., & van Driel, W., Astron. Astrophys. 259 (1992) L65.
  2. Radford, S.J.E., Astron. Astrophys. 262 (1992) 13.
  3. Watson, D.M., Guptill, M.T., & Buchholz, L.M., Astrophys. J. 420 (1994) L21.

CO in Markarian Galaxies: [Kruegel, E., Chini, R., & Steppe, H., Astron. Astrophys. 229 (1990) 17].

CO in Seyfert Galaxies:

  1. Fisher, J., Geballe, T.B., Smith, H.A., & Simon, M., Astrophys. J. 320 (1987) 667.
  2. Martin, J.M., Bottinelli, L., Dennefeld, M., Fouque, P., Gouguenheim, L., & Paturel, G., Astron. Astrophys. 235 (1990) 41.

CO in IRAS Galaxies:

  1. Sage, L.J., & Solomon, P.M., Astrophys. J. 321 (1987) L103.
  2. Mirabel, I.F., Booth, R.S., Garay, G., Johansson, L.E.B., & Sanders, D.B., Astron. Astrophys. 206 (1988) L20.
  3. Mirabel, I.F., & Saunders, D.B., Astrophys. J. 340 (1989) L53.
  4. Scoville, N., Sander, D.B., Sargent, A.I., Soifer, B.T., & Tinney, C.G., Astrophys. J. 345 (1989) L25.
  5. Solomon, P.M., Radford, S.J.E., & Downes, D., Astrophys. J. 348 (1990) L53.
  6. Buat, V., Astron. Astrophys. 264 (1992) 444.
  7. Klein, U., Giovannardi, C., Altschuler, D.R., & Wunderlich, E., Astron. Astrophys. 255 (1992) 49.
  8. Sakamoto, K., Ishizuki, S., Kawabe, R., & Ishiguro, M., Astrophys. J. 397 (1992) L27.
  9. Spitzak, J.G., & Schneider, S.E., Astrophys. J. 393 (1992) 126.
  10. Tsuboi, M., & Nakai, N., Pub. Astron. Soc. Japan. 44 (1992) 241.
  11. Hurt, R.L., Turner, J.L., Ho, P.T.P., & Martin, R.N., Astrophys. J. 404 (1993) 602.
  12. Li, J.G., Seaquist, E.R., Wrobel, J.M., Wang, Z., & Sage, L.J., Astrophys. J. 413 (1993) 150.
  13. Maloney, P., Astrophys. J. 414 (1993) 41.
  14. Tsuboi, M., & Nakai, N., Pub. Astron. Soc. Japan. 46 (1994) L179.
  15. Adreani, P., Casoli, F., & Gerin, M., Astron. Astrophys. 300 (1995) 43.
  16. Vallee, J.P., Astron. J. 109 (1995) 1724.

CO Emission from Galaxies in Clusters:

  1. Boselli, A., Gavazzi, G., Combes, F., Lequeux, J., & Casoli, F., Astron. Astrophys. 285 (1994) 69.
  2. Braine, J., Dupraz, C., Astron. Astrophys. 283 (1994) 407.

CO Emission from Galaxies in the Virgo cluster:

  1. Knapp, G.R., Helou, G., & Stark, A.A., Astron. J. 94 (1987) 54.
  2. Kenney, J.D.P., & Young, J.S., Astrophys. J. 344 (1989) 171.
  3. Russell, W.S., & Roberts, Jr., W.W., Astrophys. J. 398 (1992) 94.
  4. Boselli, A., Astron. Astrophys. 292 (1994) 1.

CO Emission from Galaxies in the Fornax cluster: [Honma, M., Sofue, Y., & Arimoto, N., Astron. Astrophys. 304 (1995) 1].

CO Emission from Galaxies in Cooling Flows:

  1. Bregman, J.N., & Hogg, D.E., Astron. J. 96 (1988) 455.
  2. Antonucci, R., & Barvainis, R., Astron. J. 107 (1994) 448.
  3. Braine, J., & Dupraz, C., Astron. Astrophys. 283 (1994) 407.

MOLECULES IN GALAXIES

  1. Henkel, C., Mauersberger, R., & Schilke, P., Astron. Astrophys. 201 (1988) L23.
  2. Mauersberger, R., Henkel, C., & Schilke, P., Astrophys. Space Sci. 156 (1989) 263.
  3. Nguyen, Q., Jackson, J.M., Henkel, C., Truony, B., & Mauersberger, R., Astrophys. J. 399 (1992) 521.
  4. Xie, S., Young, J.S., & Schloerb, F.P., Astrophys. J. 421 (1994) 434.
  5. Higdon, J.L., Smith, B.J., Lord, S.D., & Rand, R.J., Astrophys. J. 438 (1995) L79.
  6. Israel, F.P., White, G.J., & Baas, F., Astron. Astrophys. 302 (1995) 343.
  7. Jackson, J.M., Paglione, T.A.D., Carlstrom, J.E., & Rieu, N., Astrophys. J. 438 (1995) 695.
  8. Paglione, T.A.D., Jackson, J.M., Ishizuki, S., & Rieu, N., Astron. J. 109 (1995) 1716.

CO to H2 Conversion Factor:

  1. Sage, L.J., Share, S.N., & Solomon, P.M., Astrophys. J. 352 (1990) 422.
  2. Ohta, K., Tomita, A., Saito, M., Sasaki, M., & Nakai, N., Pub. Astron. Soc. Japan. 45 (1993) L210.

General Discussion:

  1. Verter, F., Astrophys. J. Suppl. 65 (1987) 555.
  2. Solomon, P.M., & Sage, L.J., Astrophys. J. 334 (1988) 613.
  3. Verter, F., Astrophys. J. Suppl. 68 (1988) 129.
  4. Devereux, N.A., & Young, J.S., Astrophys. J. 359 (1990) 42.
  5. Schombert, J.M., Bothun, G.D., Impey, C.D., & Mundy, L.G., Astron. J. 100 (1990) 1523.
  6. Wang, Z., Astrophys. J. 360 (1990) 529.
  7. Wang, Z., Astrophys. J. 360 (1990) 543.
  8. Casoli, F., Dupraz, C., & Combes, F., Astron. Astrophys. 264 (1992) 55.
  9. Gusten, R., Serabyn, E., Kasemann, C., Schinkel, A., Schneider, G., Schulz, A., & Young, K., Astrophys. J. 402 (1993) 537.
  10. Suchkov, A., Allen, R.J., & Heckman, T.M., Astrophys. J. 413 (1993) 542.
  11. Combes, F., Prugniel, P., Rompazzo, R., Sulentic, J.W., Astron. Astrophys. 281 (1994) 725.
  12. Aalto, S., Booth, R.S., Black, J.H., & Johansson, L.E.B., Astron. Astrophys. 300 (1995) 369.
  13. Honma, M., Sofue, Y., & Arimoto, N., Astron. Astrophys. 304 (1995) 1.
  14. Sprayberry, D., Bernstein, G.M., Impey, C.D., & Bothun, C.D., Astrophys. J. 438 (1995) 72.

Extragalactic Megamasers:

  1. Ho, R.T.P., Martin, R.N., Henkel, C., & Turner, J.L., Astrophys. J. 320 (1987) 665.
  2. Mirabel, I.F., & Sanders, D.B., Astrophys. J. 322 (1987) 688.
  3. Martin, J.M., Bottinelli, L., Dennefeld, M., Gouguenheim, L., & Le-Squeren, A.M., Astron. Astrophys. 201 (1988) L13.

Quasars:

  1. Brown, R.L., & vanden Bout, P.A., Astrophys. J. 412 (1993) L21.
  2. Scoville, N.Z., Padin, S., Sanders, D.B., Soifer, B.T., & Yun, M.S., Astrophys. J. 415 (1993) L75.
  3. O'Dea, C.P., Baum, S.A., & Gallimore, J.E., Astrophys. J. 436 (1994) 669.
  4. Wiklind, T., & Combes, F., Astron. Astrophys. 288 (1994) L41.
  5. Israel, F.P., Tacconi, L.J., & Baas, F., Astron. Astrophys. 295 (1995) 599.

Figure 6

Figure 6. Infrared luminosity and gas content (sum of neutral and molecular hydrogen the latter being derived from the CO-flux using the conventional conversion factor CO-flux to MH2) [Young, J.S., Scoville, N.Z., Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 29 (1991) 581] for normal spiral galaxies in the field and in groups (sample of selected nearby galaxies and the Virgo cluster sample [Knapp, G.R., Helou, G., Stark, A.A., Astron. J. 94 (1987) 54, and Kenney, J.D.P., Young, J.S., Astrophys. J. 344 (1989) 171] follow the same relation. Selected nearby spiral galaxies are given by black dots. Virgo cluster galaxies by open circles. The infrared luminosity and the dust mass have been calculated following [Young, J.S., Xie, S., Kenney, J.D.P., Rice, W.L., Astrophys. J. Suppl. 70 (1989) 699.]

Figure 7

Figure 7. The (total) gas to dust ratio in the field (dots, nearby sample as in Fig. 6) and in the cluster (open circles for the Virgo sample, see Fig. 6) seems to be very similar. The dust mass has been derived from the 60 µm and 100 µm IRAS fluxes. The solid line represents a gas-to-dust ratio of 1000.

Figure 8

Figure 8. The quantity log(LFIR/MH2) has been considered as a coefficient of star formation in galaxies. This quantity is plotted against the ratio S60/S100 of IRAS fluxes at 60 µm and 100 µm which corresponds to a temperature scale (ca. 25 K to 40 K for most of the normal galaxies), dots for the nearby galaxies, open circles for the Virgo sample. Interacting and merging galaxies (open triangles from Young et al. [Young, J.S., Scoville, N.Z., Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 29 (1991) 581]) tend to show definitely more FIR emission and higher temperatures.


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