Radio Radiation from Normal Galaxies

For galaxies with extreme strong radio radiation.

Radio-Continuum Structure

Reviews

Large-scale radio-continuum structure of E and S0 galaxies:

Ekers, R.D. in Structure and Properties of Nearby Galaxies (Berkhuijsen, E.M., & Wielebinski, R., eds.), Int. Astron. Union Symp. 77, Reidel, Dordrecht (1978). p. 49.

and of spiral galaxies:

van der Kruit, P.C. in Structure and Properties of Nearby Galaxies (Berkhuijsen, E.M., & Wielebinski, R., eds.), Int. Astron. Union Symp. 77, Reidel, Dordrecht (1978). p. 33. see also:

  1. Galactic and Extragalactic Radio Astronomy (G.L. Verschuur, & K.I. Kellermann, eds.), Berlin, Springer (1988).
  2. The Interstellar Medium in External Galaxies: Summaries of Contributed Papers (D.J. Hollenbach, & H.A. Thronson, eds.), NASA Conf. Publ. 3084 (1990).
  3. Sofue, Y., Fujimoto, M., & Wielebinski, R., Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 24 (1986) 459.
  4. Garwood, R.W., Helou, G., & Dickens, J.M., Astrophys. J. 322 (1987) 88.

Observations

Only a selection out of the large amount of radio continuum observations at different frequencies can be given here. 17 radio-continuum surveys of M31 during 1951..1975 and 30 radio-continuum observations of 26 spiral galaxies for which the HWBW of the telescope is less than about 1/5 of the Holmberg radius are collected in,

van der Kruit, P.C., & Allen, R.J. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 14 (1976) 417.

Radio Emission from Normal Galaxies:

Condon, J.J., Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 30 (1992) 575.

Surveys of Normal Galaxies:

  1. Carilli, C.L., Holdaway, M.A., Ho, P.T.P., & de Pree, C.G., Astrophys. J. 399 (1992) L59.
  2. Carilli, C.L., Holdaway, M.A., Ho, P.T.P., & de Pree, C.G., Astrophys. J. 399 (1992) 53.
  3. Condon, J.J., Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 30 (1992) 575.
  4. Horellou, C., Beck, R., Berkhuijsen, E.M., Krause, M., & Klein, U., Astron. Astrophys. 265 (1992) 417.
  5. Deeg, H., Brinks, E., Duric, N., Klein, U., & Skillman, E., Astrophys. J. 410 (1993) 626.
  6. Duric, N., Viallefond, F., Goss, W.M., & van der Hulst, J.M., Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 99 (1993) 217.
  7. Wielebinski, R., & Krause, F., Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 4 (1993) 449.
  8. Di Nella, H., Garcia, A.M., Garnier, R., & Paturel, G., Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 113 (1995) 151.
  9. Niklas, S., Klein, U., Braine, J., & Wielebinski, R., Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 114 (1995) 21.

Compendium of Radio Measurements of Bright Galaxies:

Haynes, R.E., Huchtmeier, W.K.H., Siegman, B.C., & Wright, A.E. A Compendium of Radio Measurements of Bright Galaxies, CSIRO Division of Radiophysics, Melbourne (1975).

Radio Continuum Survey of Isolated Galaxies:

Adams, M.T., Jensen, E.B., & Stocke, J.T. Astron. J. 85 (1980) 1010.

Radio Continuum Observations of the Nuclei of Normal Galaxies:

  1. Ekers, R.D. Highlights in Astron. 5 (1980) 143.
  2. van de Hulst, J.M. Highlights Astron. 5 (1980) 177.

Extended radio emission aligned with compact nuclear sources in normal galaxies:

Jones, D.L., Sramek, R.A., & Terzian, Y. Astrophys. J. 247 (1981) L57.

Several contributions dealing with individual galaxies are found in

Structure and Properties of Nearby Galaxies (Berkhuijsen, E.M., & Wielebinski, R., eds.), Int. Astron. Union Symp. 77, Reidel, Dordrecht (1978). *****

The radio continuum radiation of spirals in multiple systems is about a factor 2.5 higher in the center than in isolated spirals, but there is no significant difference in the disks.

Hummel, E. Astron. Astrophys. 96 (1981) 111.

Radio-continuum properties of spiral galaxies (based on a sample of 280 galaxies):

Hummel, E. Astron. Astrophys. 93 (1981) 93.

(1) In general more than 90% of the total radio power at 1415 MHz is emitted in the disk component.

(2) The median radio power of the disk component as well as of the central sources is directly proportional to the mean optical luminosity.

(3) The radio emissivity in the disk is independent of the morphological family. Central sources in barred spirals are on the average a factor 2 more powerful than those in ordinary spirals.

(4) The radio emissivity of the disk depends on the morphological stage. Compared to Sb/Sbc/Sc galaxies it is a factor 2-3 lower in earlier types and may be as much as a factor 2 lower in the late-type spirals. The radio power of the central sources decreases with the morphological stage. In early-type spirals they are at least a factor 10 stronger than in the late-type spirals.

(5) The disk emissivity, in terms of radio power per unit light, does not depend on color.

(6) The mean ratio of optical to radio size of the disk component is similar for the different morphological types except for early-type spirals which have smaller radio disks.

(7) There is no relation between the radio power of the central source and of the disk component.

On the basis of these results Hummel

Hummel, E. Astron. Astrophys. 93 (1981) 93.

concludes that the main sources of relativistic electrons belong to the old disk population and that in general the density waves and the central sources play an unimportant role in determining the radio-continuum emissivity in the disks of spiral galaxies. The radio power of the central sources depends on the central density and possibly on the occurrence of large non-circular gas motions in the central parts of spiral galaxies.

Magnetic Fields Derived from Radio Continuum Emission:

  1. Sofue, Y., Fujimoto, M., & Wielebinski, R., Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 24 (1986) 459.
  2. Sage, L.J., Astron. Astrophys. 272 (1993) 123.
  3. Wielebinski, R. & Krause, F., Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 4 (1993) 449.
  4. Higdon, J.L., Smith, B.J., Lord, S.D., & Rand, R.J., Astrophys. J. 438 (1995) L79.
  5. Sakamoto, K., Okumura, S., Minesaki, T., Kobayashi, Y., & Wada, K., Astron. J. 110 (1995) 2075.

The Correlation of Far-IR and Radio Emission in Galaxies:

  1. Hoeppe, G., Brinks, E., Klein, U., & Giovannardi, C., Astron. J. 108 (1994) 446.
  2. Marx, M., Krugel, E., Klein, U., & Wielebinski, R., Astron Astrophys. 281 (1994) 718.


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