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Considerable progress has been made over the last two decades in the study of clusters and superclusters of galaxies, as described in these lectures. However, many problems still remain open. I highlight some of the unsolved problems in this field that are likely to be solved in the coming decade. Currently planned large redshift surveys of galaxies and clusters such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF survey, deep optical and X-ray surveys using HST, Keck, ROSAT, ASCA, and AXAF, among other, should allow a considerable increase in our understanding of the nature and evolution of these fundamental systems. At the same time, state of the art cosmological simulations to be available in the next decade (e.g., Ostriker, this book) should greatly enhance our ability to compare the observations with detailed expectations from various cosmologies and hopefully narrow down the correct cosmological model of our universe.

Here is a partial list of some of the interesting unsolved problems in the field of clusters and superclusters of galaxies.

Clusters of Galaxies


I expect that many of these questions will be addressed and possibly solved in the coming decade.


I thank the organizers of the Jerusalem Winter School 1995, J. P. Ostriker and A. Dekel, for an outstanding, productive, and fun school. The work by N. Bahcall and collaborators is supported by NSF grant AST93-15368.

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