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FORMATION OF STRUCTURE IN THE UNIVERSE

Edited by Avishai Dekel, Jeremiah P. Ostriker

In co-operation with Cambridge University Press the Introductory chapter to this book is being made freely available for viewing by LEVEL5 users. Further details on the full text can be obtained from CUP.


CLUSTERS AND SUPERCLUSTERS OF GALAXIES (1999)

Neta A. Bahcall

Abstract. Rich clusters of galaxies are the most massive virialized systems known. Even though they contain only a small fraction of all galaxies, rich clusters provide a powerful tool for the study of galaxy formation, dark matter, large-scale structure, and cosmology.

Superclusters, the largest known systems of galaxies, extend to ~ 100h-1 Mpc in size and highlight the large-scale structure of the universe. This large-scale structure reflects initial conditions in the early universe and places strong contraints on models of galaxy formation and on cosmology.

Some of the questions that can be addressed with clusters and superclusters of galaxies include: How did galaxies and larger structures form and evolve? What is the amount, composition, and distribution of matter in clusters and larger structures? How does the cluster mass density relate to the matter density in the universe? What constraints can the cluster and supercluster data place on cosmology?

I will discuss in these lectures some of the properties of clusters and superclusters of galaxies that can be used to investigate these topics.


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS
Typical Properties of Clusters and Groups
Distribution of Clusters with Richness and Distance
Number Density of Clusters
Fraction of Galaxies in Clusters
Galaxy Overdensity in Rich Clusters
Density Profile
Central Density and Core Size
Galactic Content in Rich Clusters
Velocity Dispersion
Mass, Luminosity, and Mass-to-Luminosity Ratio
Cluster Classification

X-RAY PROPERTIES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS
X-Ray Emission from Clusters
X-Ray Properties of Clusters
The Intracluster Gas: Some Relevant Questions
The Intracluster Gas: Hydrostatic Equilibrium?
The Relation between Gas and Galaxies
Metal Abundance in Intracluster Gas
X-Ray-Optical Correlations of Cluster Properties
The X-Ray Luminosity Function of Clusters
Cooling Flows in Clusters
The Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect in Clusters

THE BARYON FRACTION IN CLUSTERS

CLUSTER MASSES

WHERE IS THE DARK MATTER?

THE MASS FUNCTION OF CLUSTERS

QUASAR-CLUSTER ASSOCIATION

SUPERCLUSTERS
Supercluster Properties
Superclusters and Pencil-Beam Surveys

THE CLUSTER CORRELATION FUNCTION

PECULIAR MOTIONS OF CLUSTERS

SOME UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

REFERENCES


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