Invited review for the XIII Canary Islands Winter School on Astrophysics.
astro-ph/0211148.

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ELEMENT ABUNDANCES IN NEARBY GALAXIES

Donald R. Garnett


Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721, USA


Abstract. In these lectures I present a highly opinionated review of the observed patterns of metallicity and element abundance ratios in nearby spiral, irregular, and dwarf elliptical galaxies, with connection to a number of astrophysical issues associated with chemical evolution. I also discuss some of the observational and theoretical issues associated with measuring abundances in H II regions and gas and stellar surface densities in disk galaxies. Finally, I will outline a few open questions that deserve attention in future investigations.


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

OBSERVATIONAL METHODS FOR MEASURING ABUNDANCES
Spectroscopy of H II Regions and Planetary Nebulae
Observational Considerations
The Direct Method
"Empirical" (Strong-Line) Calibrations
Photoionization Models
Spectroscopy of Individual Stars
Stellar Photometry and Color-Magnitude Diagrams
Spectrum Synthesis of Stellar Populations
Surface Photometry and Galaxy Colors

ABUNDANCES IN LOCAL GROUP DWARF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES
Metallicities
Element Ratios

ABUNDANCE PROFILES IN SPIRALS AND IRREGULARS
Gas and Stellar Masses
Neutral and Molecular Gas
Stellar Mass Densities
Spatial Abundance Profiles
Metallicity versus Galaxy Luminosity/Mass
Abundance Gradient Variations
Metallicity vs. Surface Brightness
Barred Spirals
Spiral Bulges
Cluster Spirals and Environment

ELEMENT ABUNDANCE RATIOS IN SPIRAL AND IRREGULAR GALAXIES
Helium
Carbon
Nitrogen
Neon, Sulfur and Argon
Other Elements

OPEN QUESTIONS AND CONCLUDING REMARKS

REFERENCES

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