A. Growth curves
To repeat myself redundantly, the first dirty problem relates to the fact that the magnitudes which come from profile fitting are purely relative magnitudes: they tell you how much brighter or fainter the program star is than the star(s) which defined the model profile for that frame, but they do not tell you the instrumental magnitude of each star in absolute terms. In order to find out how bright each program star really is, you need to know exactly how many detected photons are contained in the actual profile(s) of some star(s) in the frame. This number is then divided by the integration time to get the star's apparent flux in photons per second, which is converted into an instrumental magnitude on an absolute system by computing -2.5log(flux). The relative magnitude differences derived by the profile-fitting photometry then allow you to place all the program stars in the frame on the same external system. Finally, relying on the stability of the detector, you can transform these results to true magnitudes on somebody's standard system by comparing them to instrumental magnitudes obtained in the same way for standard stars, just as you would have done with data from a photomultiplier.
The problem here is the fact that the shape and size of a stellar image are affected by seeing, telescope focus, and guiding errors - any or all of which may change from one exposure to the next. Even if you write a profile-fitting photometry program which describes a frame's PSF with some analytic function, it is not necessarily safe to assume that you can simply integrate that function from minus infinity to plus infinity in x and y (or from zero to infinity in r), and call the result the total number of detected photons within the profile. In profile-fitting photometry, you adjust your analytic model to obtain the best possible representation of the core of the profile, where most of the photometric and astrometric information resides. If you want to be at all practical, you are not likely to include more than six or eight image-shape parameters in your analytic star model. Once these parameters have been adjusted to match the bright part of the profile, there is no guarantee that they will match the low surface-brightness, low signal-to-noise-ratio wings of the star image. Thus, when you come along and multiply this model profile by 2 r dr and integrate from zero to infinity, it's easy to believe that you might make an error of a few percent in the total volume under the profile. An error of a few percent, of course, is completely intolerable.
The easiest way to derive a consistent measure of the total number of photons contained in a star image is simply to draw a boundary around it, count the number of photons contained within the boundary, and subtract off the number of photons found in an identical region which contains no star. Of course, this is just synthetic aperture photometry with a big aperture. The main problem with this method is that the signal-to-noise ratio tends to be quite poor. Consider measuring the brightness of a star through a series of concentric apertures of increasing size. As the aperture gets bigger, of course, it contains more and more of the star's light - the signal increases. Once the aperture gets big enough that it contains most of the star's light, the rate of increase in the signal for a given increase in aperture radius declines rapidly: as the fraction of the star's flux contained in the aperture asymptotically approaches unity, successively larger apertures can only add tiny amounts of additional starlight. On the other hand, the amount of random noise contained in the aperture (readout noise, Poisson photon noise in the sky, and small-spatial-scale errors in the flat-field correction, mostly) increases as the square root of the number of pixels, which is to say linearly with the aperture radius. Furthermore, there are also systematic errors to worry about: the systematic error due to an incorrect estimate of the local sky brightness, and the likelihood of including some unrelated astronomical object in the aperture. These grow linearly as the area of the aperture, that is, as the square of the radius. So, you can see that as you increase the aperture radius, the signal grows slowly even as the noise grows rapidly. The signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement has a maximum at some comparatively small radius - a radius which usually is not large enough to contain all the seeing and guiding variations. If you try to use a larger aperture in order to get a more complete measurement of the star's flux, so you can compare this CCD frame to others with different seeing and guiding histories, you will get a measurement which is also much poorer.
The solution to this problem is to do the same as - and the opposite of - what we did before: we map and/or model the average stellar profile in the frame. The part about doing the opposite is that this time we pay no particular attention to the shape of the stellar core; instead we trace with the greatest possible precision way in which the starlight is distributed at large radii.
The standard technique for doing this is pretty straightforward. You choose a number of bright, isolated stars in your data frame (if necessary you isolate them yourself, by using the known point-spread function and the results of the profile-fitting photometry to subtract any neighbor stars from the frame), and perform aperture photometry through a series of concentric apertures of increasing radius. Then you form the magnitude differences (aperture 2 - aperture 1), (aperture 3 - aperture 2), and so on, and determine the average value for each of these differences from your particular sample of stars in the frame. Then the average correction from any arbitrary aperture k to aperture n is
For each star, you can now choose that aperture k which maximizes that star's own, private, personal, signal-to-noise ratio, and correct that measurement to a very large aperture n with the least possible loss of precision. The resulting large-aperture magnitude may now be compared to the magnitude index that was given to that same star by the profile-fitting routine, and the mean of all those differences tells you how to correct all the profile-fitting results from that frame to an absolute instrumental system which can be intercompared from one frame to another.
Now you will say to me, "This business of computing average differences
from one
aperture to the next, and then summing them up to get the correction to
the largest aperture
all looks very complicated. Why don't you just observe the actual values
of (aperture n
- aperture k) for a bunch of stars, and average them
together." The answer is that when
you do it my way, you can often use many more stars and get a more
precise final result.
In many CCD frames there may be only one or two stars where you can
actually measure
a worthwhile magnitude in aperture n. Most stars will be so faint that
the signal-to-noise
ratio in the largest aperture is very poor. For other stars, there may
be a neighbor star close
enough to contaminate the photometry in the larger apertures, or there
may be a bad pixel
or a cosmic-ray event, or the star may be too close to the edge of the
frame. However, many
of these stars will still be measurable in some subset of smaller
apertures. By determining
the mean (aperture 2 - aperture 1) difference from all stars that can be
reliably measured
in apertures 1 and 2, and determining
Not all is joy in Mudville yet, however. Sometimes you will run into a frame where no star can be measured in the largest apertures. And even if you do have one or two stars for which you can get some kind of measurement in the largest aperture, you often wonder how good a magnitude correction you can get from such ratty data. Can anything be done to make things better? Well, it seems to me that the next stage of development of the growth-curve technique is to consider the consecutive-aperture magnitude differences from all the frames taken during the course of a night or an observing run, and try to come up with a more general set of rules governing the distribution of light in the outer parts of star images. Under the working hypothesis that seeing, guiding, and optical problems will be most pronounced near the center of the stellar profile, you would then argue that if you could find a set of CCD frames whose growth curves were similar at small radii, you would expect that they should be even more similar at large radii. By somehow averaging the outer growth curves for a number of similar frames, you would come up with still more accurate and robust corrections to the magnitude system of the largest aperture.
Just combining the data from frames whose growth curves seem identical at small radii may be the simplest thing that we can do, but we can also do something more sophisticated, which will allow us to use nonlinear least squares (Oh boy, oh boy!). I have been working on a package which fits a family of analytic model profiles to all the observed consecutive-aperture magnitude differences from an entire observing run, to derive the best possible aperture corrections for every frame in one grand and glorious solution. The particular family of analytic model profiles was suggested by an empirical study of stellar images published by Ivan King in 1971. Dr. King found that a typical star image appears to consist of three parts: the innermost part of the profile - the core - is quite well represented by a Gaussian function of radius (I mentioned this before, remember?), which apparently is determined mostly by the seeing. The outermost part of the profile - the aureole - is strongly non-Gaussian. In fact it is much better represented by an inverse power law, with an exponent slightly greater than 2. The aureole is apparently produced by scattering, both within the atmosphere and from scratches and dust in the optical system itself. Between the core and the aureole is a transition region which is neither Gaussian nor a power law, and is described by an exponential as well as by anything. The actual physical cause of this transition region is not immediately obvious - perhaps it has to do with telescope aberrations, or maybe it is caused by seeing variations during the exposure (remember that the sum of many different Gaussians is not itself a Gaussian) - but whatever it is, it looks more or less like an exponential.
Here is the basic formula I use to represent King's profile analytically (it looks a lot worse than it really is):
where r is a radial distance measured (in pixels) from the center of the concentric apertures, which are in turn assumed to be concentric with the star image; R_{i} is a seeing- (guiding-, defocusing-) related radial scale parameter for the i-th data frame; and G, M, and H represent King's three profile regimes: the core, the aureole, and the intermediate transition region. They are Gaussian, Moffat, and exponential functions, respectively:
In the reduction of the data from a given night or observing run, my program computes a separate value of the seeing-radius parameter R_{i} for each CCD frame, but the values of the other fitting parameters A, B, C, and D are required to be the same for all frames. Since the parameter R_{i} affects only the Gaussian and exponential components, which dominate at small radii, this model permits each CCD frame to have its own seeing disk in the core, while forcing all frames to have the same power-law aureole at large radii. Not only is this constraint physically plausible, it also seems to be borne out pretty well by the available data (at least for a given telescope at a given time). There are a few other things I'd like to point out about this model. (1) The parameter A affects the asymptotic power-law slope of the aureole, so that the model can adapt itself to the available data at large radii. If the King profile is to be physically reasonable, we must have A > 1; otherwise, the total amount of flux contained within the profile, when integrated to infinity, will diverge. (2) The parameter B describes the fraction of the stellar flux which is contained in the seeing-independent part of the profile. (3) The parameter C allows the program to adjust the relative importance of the Gaussian and exponential contributions to the seeing-dependent part of the profile, for the best possible match of the model to the data at small-to-intermediate radii. (4) Similarly, the parameter D allows the program to adjust the scale lengths of the Gaussian and exponential components relative to one another (although their ratio is required to be constant for the entire data set), for a still better match of the model to the data at intermediate radii.
This model is applied only in a differential sense. That is, given a set of instrumental magnitude measurements m_{i,j,k} through a set of apertures k = 1, ... , n with radii r_{k} (r_{k} > r_{k-1}) for stars j = 1, ... , N_{i} in frame i, we work with the observed magnitude differences
These values of are fitted by a robust least-squares technique to equations of the form
As I implied before, this growth-curve methodology is, in a way, profile-fitting photometry stood on its head. Instead of producing an accurate model of the bright core of a star image for the best possible relative intensity scaling, we are now trying to get an accurate model of the faint wings of the profile for the best possible absolute determination of the stellar flux. For the growth-curve analysis the detailed structure of the star image inside the smallest aperture is immaterial, because the only way the profile inside the innermost aperture influences the result is through the integral _{0}^{r1} I(r) (2 r) dr, which is merely a constant contributing to the numerator and denominator for all the magnitude differences.
Figs. 5-1 to 5-4 show some examples of growth curves generated in this way. Fig. 5-1 shows five members of the one-parameter family of growth curves which I generated for an observing run that I had in June 1988 at the prime focus of the Cerro Tololo 4m telescope. The uppermost curve is for the frame with the best seeing which I got during the run, the bottom curve is for the frame with the poorest seeing, and I have also shown curves for three equally spaced intermediate seeing values. Fig. 5-2 shows how the raw magnitude differences actually observed for the best-seeing frame compared to the model, Fig. 5-3 shows the same for a frame of intermediate seeing, and finally Fig. 5-4 shows the same for the frame with the poorest seeing.
Figure 5-1. |
Figure 5-2. |
Figure 5-3. |
Figure 5-4. |
Now let's consider some of the simplifying assumptions I have made. First, in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the low-surface-brightness wings, the two-dimensional data have been compressed to a single, radial dimension by summation in the azimuthal direction - that's what the difference between two circular apertures gives you. Second, I have assumed that all the stellar profiles produced by a given telescope/detector combination can be represented by a single one-parameter family of curves differing only in a seeing-imposed radial scale-length parameter. Unfortunately, this assumption will not be entirely valid. There is no reason to assume that the effects of seeing are the same as the effects of guiding errors, telescope aberrations, defocusing, and aperture decentering: each will impose its own characteristic structures on the stellar profile. Fig. 5-5 shows a frame from the same observing run as the frames in Fig. 5-2 to Fig. 5-4; as you can see, it just plain doesn't look like it belongs to quite the same family as the others. (I must confess that this is the most extreme example I have ever seen of a frame which departs from its observing run s one-parameter family of growth curves.) However, in spite of these complications, I think it may not be completely insane to hope that these profile differences are reduced in importance by the azimuthal summing, and furthermore I think we can hope that they will be most important in the smallest apertures; in the larger apertures, my assumption of a one-parameter family of growth curves may be asymptotically correct, at least to within the precision of the observations.
Figure 5-5. |
My proposed solution to the problem is, in some ways, similar to the one I adopted in defining DAOPHOT's point-spread function: since the empirical growth curve and the analytic model growth curve both have problems, maybe we can do better by combining them. To be specific: in addition to deriving the best-fitting analytic growth curve for each frame, my routine also computes a standard, old-fashioned empirical growth curve for each frame, by taking robust averages of the aperture differences actually observed in that frame. Then it constructs the frame's adopted growth curve by compromising between the empirical growth curve and the analytic model growth curve. This compromise is heavily weighted toward the empirical curve at small aperture radii, since it is here that the raw observations are at their best: any given frame will contain many more stars which can be effectively measured through a small apertures than through large ones, and those measurements will contain the smallest random and systematic errors. Conversely, the frame's adopted growth curve is heavily biased toward the analytic curve at large aperture radii, where the frame may have only poorly determined raw magnitude differences or none at all, but the assumption that the run's growth curves can be described by a one-parameter model should be quite good. Fig. 5-6 shows the same data as Fig. 5-5, only this time the analytic model growth curve (short dashes), the empirical growth curve (long dashes), and the compromise growth curve which is finally adopted for the frame (solid curve) are all shown.
Figure 5-6. |
I don't need to tell you that in determining the empirical and the analytic growth curves, I use a form of the (a, b) weight-fudging scheme that I described in my third lecture. This time I use it with a slight twist. Unless you are extremely careful in choosing the particular stars you want to use to define your growth curves (and even sometimes when you are extremely careful), you're going to be including some just plain awful magnitude differences, because of small image defects or cosmic-ray events (it doesn't take much to screw up a measurement when you're hoping for precisions much better than a percent). Now the basic equation for the analytic model growth curve is rather highly non-linear, the various parameters interact pretty strongly with each other, and starting guesses at the parameter values are not necessarily obvious. If I use too strong a clipping algorithm, (small a, large b) I can get into trouble with non-unique solutions. One likely scenario is, depending on what I use as the starting guesses for the parameters, the solution will simply latch onto the observed growth curve for whatever star lies closest, and ignore all the others. On the other hand, if I use too weak a clipping function (large a, perhaps combined with small b), I may get garbage too, since some frames are just so bad that not even the median of the magnitude differences observed for a particular pair of apertures may be close to the right answer (e.g., Figs. 5-7 and 5-8). Again I compromise. In the beginning, the clipping function is used with a = 2 and = 1. As I discussed in the third lecture, this has the effect of pulling the solution toward the median of the data points (tinged toward the mean of those data points with particularly small residuals). No datum is so bad that it's totally ignored. Even if the starting guesses are completely wrong, still the solution will be pulled into the center of the bulk of the data, rather than merely latching onto whatever lies closest to the starting guess. After the least-squares solution has achieved a provisional convergence with this clipping function, b is changed to 2 (a is left alone). This has the effect of reducing the weights of the most discrepant points, while slightly increasing the weights of those points with small residuals (< 2); points with moderate-to-large residuals still carry some weight (a 4 residual still receives one-fifth weight, for instance. Look it up: how often do you expect a 4 residual with a Gaussian error distribution? Do you still believe that cookbook least squares is the only truly honest way to reduce data?). This allows the solution to shift itself a little closer to where the data points are thickest - it adjusts itself more toward the mode of the raw data. Finally, after this least-squares solution has achieved provisional convergence, b is changed to 3. This suppresses the really bad observations still further, and restores the weights of the data with small residuals to a value still closer to unity. With this mechanism, I get most of the best of both worlds: I'm not stuck with including the obviously bad data points in my results, and yet I don't get paradoxical or non-unique answers. Regardless of the starting guesses the solution is pulled reliably and repeatably into the midst of the concordant observations. By this time I have looked at literally thousands of such solutions, and in every case the final solution has looked pretty much like what I would have sketched through the data by hand and eye, given the same information as the computer had. Figs. 5-9 and 5-10 show the growth curves that were fitted to the data shown in Figs. 5-7 and 5-8; for comparison, I also show the growth curves for two frames of similar seeing which contain good raw data.
Figure 5-7. |
Figure 5-8. |
It takes our VAX computer about half an hour to compute the adopted growth curves for a couple of hundred frames. How long do you think it would take me with a pencil and a stack of graph paper? Another triumph for (approximately) least squares.
Figure 5-9. |
Figure 5-10. |