NED Redshift-Independent Distances (NED-D)

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(Latest Revision: 13 December 2018)

NED-D: A Master List of Redshift-Independent Extragalactic Distances

(Version 15.1.0 December 2018)

As compiled by Ian Steer, Barry F. Madore, and the NED Team

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)
California Institute of Technology


The Observatories
Carnegie Institution of Washington
Pasadena CA

With additional generous support from the Carnegie Institution of Canada

NED-D data files:


NED-D is an online compilation of redshift-independent extragalactic distances found in an extensive search of the recently published literature. Version 15.1.0 (December 2018) of NED-D provides 66388 distances to 7156 galaxies based on primary methods, using standard candles such as Cepheids and Type Ia supernova, or standard rulers such as globular cluster radii and masers. Also provided are 204038 distances for 141249 galaxies based on secondary methods (the Tully-Fisher or Fundamental Plane relations, etc.). In total, NED-D V15.1.0 provides 271954 redshift-independent extragalactic distances for 147366 galaxies.

Users can access the results of this compilation of distances in two independent ways:

  1. On the Main Interface to NED the link labeled Redshift Independent Distances allows one to retrieve distances for individual galaxies within NED. For the Andromeda galaxy for example, this request currently returns 409 distances based on 23 redshift-independent methods. Galaxy queries draw from the 224405 distances for 143438 galaxies and systems of galaxies that come from sources that are both peer-reviewed and incorporated within the main NED database.
  2. The Galaxy Distances Tabulation (NED-D) [Download] contains all 271954 distances for all 147366 galaxies available, including all distances incorporated within NED as above, as well as distances from some peer-reviewed papers still to be added to NED, plus distances found in conference proceedings or preprints not generally found in the main NED database. The format is CSV (comma-separated variable), appropriate for loading into most database management systems. Table 1 describes the structure of this tabular version of NED-D.

The methodology, content, and use of NED-D are described in an article for The Astronomical Journal by the NED Team (Steer et al. 2017). Our primary gateways to the redshift-independent distance estimates published in the astronomical literature are the NASA/SAO Astrophysics Data System (ADS), described by Kurtz et al. (2000), and the arXiv astronomical paper archive, described by Ginsparg (2011). Distances based on several dozen different redshift-independent distance indicators, including primary and secondary indicators, are available. Table 2 provides a complete listing. If your research benefits from use of the redshift-independent distance estimates compiled in NED, a citation to Steer et al. 2017 would be gratefully appreciated, in addition to the recommended acknowledgement of NED.

NED-D is designed to meet the need for an up-to-date and easy-to-use tabulation of redshift-independent extragalactic distances published in the precision era, broadly taken to be since 1990 and launch of the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). NED-D exists to support scientists, space missions, and ground-based observatories in planning, interpretation, and publication of research on galaxies, extragalactic distances, and cosmology. NED-D is being maintained as part of NED core activities, with updated and upgraded versions being made available on a regular basis.

Table 1: Structure of the tabular version of NED-D
Field Label Description
1 Exclusion Code Exclusion Code: indicates where "" (blank) which of the distances from the master file are from peer-reviewed sources incorporated within NED, and are both interactive within NED and available via the Redshift Independent Distances query, and indicates by the letter "R" and "N" which are among the distances not yet included in NED but available in the NED-D tabulation.
2 D Record index.
3 G Object index.
4 Galaxy ID NED "Preferred Object Name" for the host galaxy.
5 m-M Distance Modulus expressed in mag.
6 err Quoted (one-sigma) statistical (random) error on the distance modulus.
7 D (Mpc) Metric distance (in units of Mpc).
8 Method Distance indicator (method) used; see Table 2 for explanations of the codes.
9 REFCODE REFCODE for the originating paper publishing the distance.
Ancillary information of the various methods, such as added corrections, zero points, etc.
10 SN ID Supernova Name: informs users only when distances are based on Type Ia Supernova (SNIa), Type II Supernova optical (SNII optical), or Type II Supernova radio (SNII radio) methods, stating which SN is referenced, easing interactive comparison between NED-D and the author(s) data, which are most often presented in SN order whether by date or name, rather than order of galaxy host position, as given here.
11 redshift (z) Redshift: appears only in cases where the distance modulus is published as a "luminosity distance modulus", as provided mostly for Type Ia supernova (SNIa), showing the target redshift used to transform each "luminosity distance modulus" given to the corresponding "metric distance", via m-M(L) = [5 logD/(1+z)]/5.
12 Hubble const. Hubble constant: appears only in cases where the Hubble constant assumed by the author(s) differs from the default value of H = 70 km/s/Mpc used here and by the Supernova Cosmology Project, the Supernova Legacy Survey and others, see for example Astier et al. (2006), who round down the value of H = 72 km/s/Mpc from the NASA HST Key Project final results by Freedman et al. (2001).
13 Adopted LMC modulus LMC zero point: appears only in cases where the zero point assumed by the author(s) differs from a fiduciary value of 18.50 mag.
14 Date (Yr. - 1980) Reference Date
15 Notes Notes distinguishing where necessary relevant measurement data.

Table 2: NED-D redshift-independent extragalactic distance methods
Standard CandlesEstimatesGalaxies
AGN time lag 33 20
Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars (AGB) 3 2
B-type Stars (B Stars) 2 1
BL Lac Object Luminosity (BL Lac Luminosity) 152 132
Black Hole 17 17
Blue Supergiant 2 2
Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) 239 239
Brightest Stars 365 174
Carbon Stars 55 19
Cepheids 11088 87
Color-Magnitude Diagrams (CMD) 1114 186
Delta Scuti 14 5
Flux-Weighted Gravity-Luminosity Relation (FGLR) 13 11
Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) 845 275
Globular Cluster Luminosity Function (GCLF) 796 213
Globular Cluster Surface Brightness Fluctuations (GC SBF) 2 1
HII Luminosity Function (HII LF) 16 16
Horizontal Branch 135 54
M Stars luminosity (M Stars) 12 8
Miras 49 16
Novae 18 8
O- and B-type Supergiants (OB Stars) 6 3
Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function (PNLF) 261 72
Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars (PAGB Stars) 2 2
Quasar spectrum 11 11
RR Lyrae Stars 26598 67
Red Clump 224 28
Red Supergiant Variables (RSV Stars) 9 6
Red Variable Stars (RV Stars) 5 1
S Doradus Stars 5 5
SNIa SDSS 3027 1771
SX Phoenicis Stars 4 3
Short Gamma-Ray Bursts (SGRB) 40 36
Statistical 44 18
Subdwarf Fitting 1 1
Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZ effect) 315 49
Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBF) 1913 539
Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) 2030 475
Type II Cepheids 67 17
Type II Supernovae, Radio (SNII radio) 13 13
Type Ia Supernovae (SNIa) 15194 3179
White Dwarfs 1 1
Wolf-Rayet 3 1
Standard Rulers
CO ring diameter 12 12
Dwarf Galaxy Diameter 6 3
Eclipsing Binary 213 8
Globular Cluster Radii (GC radius) 108 107
Grav. Stability Gas. Disk 20 20
Gravitational Lenses (G Lens) 122 59
HII Region Diameters (HII) 70 44
Jet Proper Motion 1 1
Masers 28 10
Orbital Mechanics (Orbital Mech.) 7 5
Proper Motion 10 5
Ring Diameter 212 165
Type II Supernovae, Optical (SNII Optical) 836 184
Secondary Methods
D-Sigma 1955 566
Diameter 7 4
Dwarf Ellipticals 1 1
Faber-Jackson 1522 443
Fundamental Plane (FP) 129945 129038
GC K vs. (J-K) 1 1
GeV TeV ratio 47 25
Globular Cluster Fundamental Plane (GC FP) 10 2
H I + optical distribution 1 1
Infra-Red Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) 2947 2439
L(H{beta})-{sigma} 25 25
LSB galaxies 6 6
Magnitude 71 71
Mass Model 11 6
Radio Brightness 1 1
Sosies 387 344
Tertiary 283 283
Tully Estimate (Tully est) 1434 1431
Tully-Fisher 65384 12244

NED-D Growth

Figure 1. Growth in the number of individual redshift-independent distance estimates (blue), and the galaxies with such estimates (red), is shown for both primary indicators (thick lines) and secondary indicators (thin lines). Cumulative totals are shown for the end of each five-year period, except the most recent period which is current through 2014.

NED-D Historical Distances (pre-1930)

We have also collected, using similar procedures, 290 distances to galaxies published before 1930. One of us (I.S.) has provided a brief introduction to these.

Hubble Tuning Fork Shown to Scale Using Distances from NED-D

Click on the image below for details.

Hubble Tuning Fork - NED-D


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