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  1. R. Beck, Magnetic fields in normal galaxies, Phil. Trans. of the Roy. Soc. of Lon., A358, 777-796 (2000); T. E. Clarke, P. P. Kronberg, H. Bohringer, A New Radio-X-Ray Probe of Galaxy Cluster Magnetic Fields, ApJ Lett., 547, L111-L114 (2001); C. Vogt, T. A. Enßlin, A Bayesian view on Faraday rotation maps - Seeing the magnetic power spectra in galaxy clusters, Astron. Astrophys., 434, 67-76 (2005)

  2. A. Brandenburg and K. Subramanian, Astrophysical magnetic fields and nonlinear dynamo theory, Phys. Rep. 417, 1-209 (2005) [arXiv:astro-ph/0405052].

  3. A. A. Schekochihin, S. C. Cowley, R. M. Kulsrud, G. W. Hammett and P. Sharma, Plasma instabilities and magnetic field growth in clusters of galaxies Astrophys. J., 629, 139-142 (2005)

  4. L. Biermann, Über den Ursprung der Magnetfelder auf Sternen und im interstellaren Raum, Z. Naturforsch., 5a, 65-71 (1950); L. Mestel and I. W. Roxburgh, On the thermal generation of toroidal magnetic fields in rotating stars, Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., 136, 615-626 (1962)

  5. K. Subramanian, D. Narasimha and S. M. Chitre, Thermal generation of cosmological seed magnetic fields in ionization fronts, Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. Lett., 271, L15-L18 (2004)

  6. N. Y. Gnedin, A. Ferrara and E. G. Zweibel, Generation of the primordial magnetic fields during cosmological reionization, Astrophys. J., 539, 505-516 (2000)

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  8. E. R. Harrison, Generation of magnetic fields in the radiation ERA, Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., 147, 279-286 (1970); I. N. Mishustin and A. A. Ruzmaikin, Occurrence of 'priming' magnetic fields during the formation of protogalaxies, JETP, 61, 441-444 (1971), [Sov. Phys. JETP, 34, 233-235 (1972)]

  9. R. Gopal and S. Sethi, Generation of magnetic field in the pre-recombination era, Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., 363 521-528 (2005); S. Matarrese, S. Mollerach, A. Notari and A. Riotto, Large-scale magnetic fields from density perturbations Phys. Rev. D. 71, 043502-1-043502-7 (2005); Kiyotomo Ichiki, Keitaro Takahashi, Naoshi Sugiyama, Hidekazu Hanayama, Hiroshi Ohno, Magnetic field spectrum at cosmological recombination, [arXiv:astro-ph/0701329]

  10. M. J. Rees, The origin and cosmogonic implications of seed magnetic fields, Quart. J. Roy. Astr. Soc., 28, 197-206 (1987); M. J. Rees, Origin of cosmic magnetic fields, Astron. Nachr. 327, 395-398 (2006)

  11. A. A. Ruzmaikin, D. D. Sokoloff and A. M. Shukurov, Magnetic Fields of Galaxies, Kluwer, Dordrecht (1988)

  12. A. P. Kazantsev, Enhancement of a magnetic field by a conducting fluid, JETP, 26, 1031-1034 (1968)

  13. Y. B. Zeldovich, A. A. Ruzmaikin and D. D. Sokoloff, The Almighty Chance, World Scientific, Singapore (1990)

  14. N. E. L. Haugen, A. Brandenburg, W. Dobler, Is nonhelical hydromagnetic turbulence peaked at small scales?, Astrophys. J. Lett., 597, L141-L144 (2003); N. E. L. Haugen, A. Brandenburg, W. Dobler, Simulations of nonhelical hydromagnetic turbulence, Phys. Rev. E., 70, 016308-1-016308-14 (2004)

  15. A. A. Schekochihin, S. C. Cowley, S. F. Taylor, J. L. Maron, J. C. McWilliams, Simulations of the small scale turbulent dynamo, Astrophys. J., 612, 276-307 (2004)

  16. K. Subramanian, Unified treatment of small and large scale dynamos in helical turbulence, Phys. Rev. Lett., 83, 2957-2960 (1999); K. Subramanian, Hyperdiffusion in nonlinear, large and small scale turbulent dynamos Phys. Rev. Lett., 90, 245003-1-245003-4 (2003)

  17. K. Subramanian, A. Shukurov and N. E. L Haugen, Evolving turbulence and magnetic fields in galaxy clusters, Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., 366, 1437-1454 (2006)

  18. C. Vogt, T. A. Enßlin, Magnetic turbulence in cool cores of galaxy clusters, Astron. Astrophys., 453, 447-458 (2006)

  19. A. Brandenburg, The inverse cascade and nonlinear alpha effect in simulations of isotropic helical hydromagnetic turbulence, Astrophys. J., 550, 824-840 (2001)

  20. E. N. Parker, Hydromagnetic dynamo models, Astrophys. J., 122, 293-314 (1955);

  21. H. K. Moffatt, Magnetic field generation in electrically conducting fluids, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1978); F. Krause, K.-H. Rädler, Mean-Field Magnetohydrodynamics and Dynamo Theory Akademie-Verlag, Berlin; also Pergamon Press, Oxford (1980)

  22. A. Shukurov, Introduction to galactic dynamos, in "Mathematical Aspects of Natural Dynamos", eds. E. Dormy and B. Desjardins, EDP Press (2004) [arXiv:astro-ph/0411739]

  23. A. Courvoisier A., D. W. Hughes and S. M. Tobias, alpha effect in a family of chaotic flows, Phys. Rev. Lett., 96, 034503-1-034503-4 (2006)

  24. S. Sur, A. Brandenburg and K. Subramanian, Kinematic alpha effect in isotropic turbulence simulations, Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. (in press), (2007) [arXiv:0711.3789]

  25. F. Cattaneo and D. W. Hughes, Nonlinear saturation of the turbulent alpha effect, Phys. Rev. E., 54, R4532-R4535 (1996)

  26. K. Subramanian and A. Brandenburg, Magnetic helicity density and its flux in weakly inhomogeneous turbulence, Astrophys. J. Lett., 648, L71-L74 (2006) [astro-ph/0509392 v1 contains more details]

  27. E. G. Blackman, G. B. Field, New dynamical mean field dynamo theory and closure approach, Phys. Rev. Lett., 89, 265007-1-265007-4 (2002); K.-H. Rädler, N. Kleeorin, I. Rogachevskii, The mean electromotive force for MHD turbulence: the case of a weak mean magnetic field and slow rotation, Geophys. Astropys. Fluid. Dyn., 97 249-274 (2003)

  28. A. Brandenburg and K. Subramanian, Minimal tau approximation and simulations of the alpha effect, Astron. Astrophys., 439, 835-843 (2005); A. Brandenburg and K. Subramanian, Simulations of the anisotropic kinetic and magnetic alpha effects, Astron. Nachr. 328, 507-512 (2007)

  29. E. G. Blackman and G. B. Field, Constraints on the magnitude of alpha in dynamo Theory, Astrophys. J., 534, 984-988 (2000); N. Kleeorin, D. Moss, I. Rogachevskii and D. Sokoloff, Helicity balance and steady-state strength of the dynamo generated galactic magnetic field, Astron. Astrophys. Lett., 361, L5-L8 (2000); E. T. Vishniac and J. Cho, Magnetic Helicity Conservation and Astrophysical Dynamos, Astrophys. J., 550, 752-760 (2001); A. Brandenburg and K. Subramanian, Strong mean field dynamos require supercritical helicity fluxes, Astron. Nachr. 326, 400-408 (2005); K. Subramanian and A. Brandenburg, Nonlinear current helicity fluxes in turbulent dynamos and alpha quenching, Phys. Rev. Lett., 93, 205001-1-205001-4 (2004)

  30. A. Shukurov, D. Sokoloff, K. Subramanian and A. Brandenburg, Galactic dynamo and helicity losses through fountain flow, Astron. Astrophys. Lett., 448, L33-L36 (2006)

  31. S. Sur, A. Shukurov and K. Subramanian, Galactic dynamos supported by magnetic helicity fluxes, Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., 377, 874-882 (2007)

  32. A. Pouquet, U. Frisch, J. Léorat, Strong MHD helical turbulence and the nonlinear dynamo effect, Jour. of Fluid Mech., 77, 321-354 (1976); A. V. Gruzinov, P. H. Diamond, Self-consistent theory of mean field electrodynamics, Phys. Rev. Lett., 72, 1651-1653 (1994)

  33. M. R. E. Proctor, Dynamo processes: the interaction of turbulence and magnetic fields, In Stellar Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, eds. M. J. Thompson, J. Christensen-Dalsgaard, Cambridge University Press, 143-158 (2003); K.-H. Rädler and M. Rheinhardt, Mean-field electrodynamics: critical analysis of various analytical approaches to the mean electromotive force, Geophys. Astropys. Fluid. mech., 101, 117-154 (2007)

  34. S. Sur, K. Subramanian and A. Brandenburg, Kinetic and magnetic alpha-effects in non-linear dynamo theory, Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., 376, 1238-1250 (2007)

  35. E. G. Blackman and A. Brandenburg, Dynamic nonlinearity in large scale dynamos with shear, Astrophys. J., 579, 359-373 (2002); K. Subramanian, Magnetic helicity in galactic dynamos, Bull. Astr. Soc. India, 30, 715-721 (2002)

  36. A. Brandenburg, The case for a distributed solar dynamo shaped by near-surface shear, Astrophys. J., 625, 539-547 (2005); A. Brandenburg, K.-H. Rädler, M. Rheinhardt and P. J. Käpylä, Magnetic diffusivity tensor and dynamo effects in rotating and shearing turbulence, Astrophys. J. (in press), [arXiv:0710.4059]; T. A. Yousef et al., Generation of magnetic field by combined action of turbulence and shear [arXiv:0710.3359]

  37. A. Aguirre and J. Schaye, How did the IGM become enriched?, EAS Publications Series, 24, 165-175 (2007) [arXiv:astro-ph/0611637v1]

  38. S. R. Furlanetto and A. Loeb, Intergalactic magnetic fields from quasar outflows Astrophys. J., 556, 619-634 (2001); P. P. Kronberg, H. Lesch and U. Hopp, Magnetization of the intergalactic medium by primeval galaxies, Astrophys. J., 511, 56-64 (1999); S. Bertone, C. Vogt and T. Enßlin, Magnetic field seeding by galactic winds, Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., 370, 319-330 (2006)

  39. P. Madau, A. Ferrara and M. J. Rees, Early Metal Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium by Pregalactic Outflows, Astrophy. J., 555, 92-105 (2001); S. Samui, K. Subramanian and R. Srianand, Constrained semi-analytical models of Galactic outflows, Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. (in Press) (2008) [arXiv:0801.1401]

  40. M. Turner, L. M. Widrow, Inflation-produced, large scale magnetic fields, Phys. Rev. D. 37, 2743-2754 (1988); L. M. Widrow, Origin of galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields, Rev. Mod. Phys., 74, 775-823 (2002); M. Giovannini, Magnetic fields, strings and cosmology, To appear in the book "String theory and fundamental interactions", eds. M. Gasperini and J. Maharana, Lecture Notes in Physics, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg (2007) [arXiv:astro-ph/0612378]

  41. A. Brandenburg, K. Enqvist, P. Olesen, Large-scale magnetic fields from hydromagnetic turbulence in the very early universe, Phys. Rev. D., 54, 1291-1300 (1996); R. Banerjee and K. Jedamzik, Evolution of cosmic magnetic fields: From the very early Universe, to recombination, to the present, Phys. Rev. D., 70, 123003-1-123003-25 (2004)

  42. K. Subramanian, Primordial magnetic fields and CMB anisotropies, Astron. Nachr., 327, 403-409 (2006);

  43. J. D. Barrow, P. G. Ferreira and J. Silk, Constraints on a Primordial Magnetic Field, Phys. Rev. Lett., 78, 3610-3613 (1997); K. Subramanian and J. D. Barrow, Microwave Background Signals from Tangled Magnetic Fields, Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, 3575-3578 (1998); T. R. Seshadri and K. Subramanian, Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Signals from Tangled Magnetic Fields, Phys. Rev. Lett., 87, 101301-1-101301-4 (2001); A. Mack, T. Kahniashvili and A. Kosowsky, Microwave background signatures of a primordial stochastic magnetic field, Phys. Rev. D., 65, 123004 (2002); K. Subramanian, T. R. Seshadri and J. D. Barrow, Small-scale cosmic microwave background polarization anisotropies due to tangled primordial magnetic fields Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., 344, L31-L35 (2003); A. Lewis, CMB anisotropies from primordial inhomogeneous magnetic fields, Phys. Rev. D., 70, 043011 (2004); M. Giovannini, Tight coupling expansion and fully inhomogeneous magnetic fields, Phys. Rev. D., 74, 063002 (2006)

  44. S. Sethi and K. Subramanian, Primordial magnetic fields in the post-recombination era and early reionization, Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., 356, 778-788 (2005); H. Tashiro and N. Sugiyama, Early reionization with primordial magnetic fields, Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., 368, 965-970 (2006)

  45. R. M. Kulsrud and E. G. Zweibel, The origin of astrophysical magnetic fields, [arXiv:0707.2783]

  46. B. M. Gaensler, The Square Kilometre Array: a new probe of cosmic magnetism, Astron. Nachr. 327, 387-394 (2006); B. M. Gaensler, R. Beck and L. Feretti, The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetism, New Astron. Rev., 48, 1003-1012 (2004)

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