Welcome to the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)
March 2014 Release
The NED user interface has begun a transition to a new, more modern style. This new interface
may be previewed here. Drop down menus may be used to quickly access
searches for objects, data, or literature. Clicking one of these options will lead to the classic,
familiar search forms for services that have not yet adopted the new style. The most popular
By Name search may be typed directly into a prominently featured query box.
Search Objects, With Unprocessed Catalog Sources leads to a
new-style interface which gives information on objects in NED and sources from very large catalogs
(VLCs) that NED knows about but have not yet been fully integrated into NED (see below).
Source Nomenclature leads to a new-style service for looking up
NED has implemented a new methodology for integrating data from very large
catalogs (VLCs) containing tens or hundreds of millions of sources.
There is a new user interface to Search Objects, With Unprocessed Catalog Sources,
with an option to include incoming catalog sources that have not yet been cross-identified and had their
key parameters fused with other information in NED.
The current release provides access to 471 million catalog sources from the 2MASS
Point Source Catalog (2MASS PSC) and 22 million catalog sources from the
GALEX Medium Imaging Survey Catalog (GMSC). Nearly 40 million catalog sources from the GALEX All Sky Survey
Catalog (GASC) have already been cross-identified with NED objects or promoted to new NED objects.
In the past, cross-identifications between
incoming catalog sources and objects in NED were
integrated incrementally over many months as the results
from cross-matching software were vetted and loaded into the database in
chunks spanning across multiple NED updates.
This had the disadvantage that only a fraction of catalog sources
were accessible in NED until the catalogs were fully processed, and
it was not clear exactly what subsets were in NED at any given time.
In the new approach, selected parameters (columns) for all catalog sources (rows) in a
VLC are rapidly loaded into a new Catalog Source Representation layer of the database
and made available for optional inclusion in search results
along with the fully integrated NED objects. A detailed discussion of
the ontology of unprocessed catalog sources (Status=S) versus NED objects (Status=O)
may be found here.
The new Search By Environment service gives a view of the environments
surrounding objects or positions of interest. A list of objects centered on the requested position and
having radial velocities within 5000 km/s and projected distances within 10 Mpc
is returned, and the locations of these objects are plotted on position-radial velocity diagrams.
The September 2013 Release
published on this website a document titled
Best Practices for Data Publication to Facilitate Integration into NED:
A Reference Guide for Authors (Schmitz, M. et al. 2013).
We encourage authors and referees of journal articles presenting extragalactic
data and derived results to refer to these Best Practices while preparing and
reviewing data sets and manuscripts before publication. We expect this
document will evolve based on additional input from the community, and we
welcome everyone interested to please
submit your comments for future editions.
Long-running queries from the
Search for Objects By Parameters service
are now managed by queue (starting September 2013). The
NED Backgrounding with Automated
Scheduling and Queuing (NBASQ) system supports these searches and
delivers machine-readable output tables staged on the NED
server for download when the search is completed. This service
facilitates complex, multi-parameter searches that typicaly require more
than a few minutes to complete and often result in very large output tables.
The following table gives statistics for data added to NED since
the previous public update, followed by the current total holdings:
|Data Type ||Added ||Total|
|Sources from Very Large Catalogs ||532,806,736 ||493,236,705|
|Multiwavelength Cross-IDs ||39,846,066 ||232,414,197|
|Unique Objects ||29,084,152 ||206,318,572|
|Object Associations ||11,192 ||1,413,595|
|References ||788 ||90,211|
|Publication Abstracts ||772 ||65,206|
|Object Links to References ||1,668,471 ||30,473,593|
|Photometric Data Points ||145,107,934 ||1,891,536,140|
|Diameters ||0 ||608,833,152|
|Objects with Redshifts ||983,948 ||5,178,966|
|Redshift-Independent Distances ||1,940 ||71,233|
|Objects with Redshift-Independent Distances||274 ||15,768|
|Objects with Detailed Classifications||0 ||229,792|
|Detailed Object Notes ||1,442 ||73,732|
|Images ||180 ||2,603,933|
|Spectra ||59,621 ||553,725|
Highlights of Latest Additions to Objects and Basic Data
Nearly 471,000,000 2MASS PSC Near-IR Sources from
The 2-Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog
(Skrutskie, M. F. et al.
Nearly 40,000,000 GALEX ASC (GASC) UV Sources from
The GALEX All Sky Catalog
About 22,000,000 GALEX MSC (GMSC) UV Sources from
The GALEX Medium-Deep Sky Catalog
Over 65,000 COMAi galaxies from
The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. II.
(Hammer, D. et al.
Over 27,000 more MaxBCG clusters from
Robust Optical Richness Estimation with Reduced Scatter
(Rykoff, E. S. et al.
Over 21,000 more MUSYC objects from
The Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC)
(Cardamone, C. N. et al.
Over 12,000 more candidate QSOs and over 1,163,000 photometric redshifts
using the NBCKDE (Nonparametric Bayes Classifier Kernel Density
Estimate) method from
Efficient Photometric Selection of Quasars from the Sloan Digital
Sky Survey. II.
(Richards, G. T. et al.
Over 2,000 more candidate QSOs behind the LMC from
A Refined QSO Selection Method Using Diagnostics Tests
(Kim, D.-W. et al.
Over 1,300 new parts of galaxies (HII regions, globular clusters,
planetary nebulae) from 13 different journal articles
Supernovae through October 2013
Highlights of Latest Additions to Photometry
- VIS and NIR : 4130 sources with HST multiwavelength magnitudes from
Active and Passive Galaxies at z ~ 2: Rest-frame Optical
Morphologies with WFC3
(Cameron, E. et al.
- SUBMM : 153 sources with BLAST 250, 350, and 500 GHz fluxes from
Submillimetre observations of galaxy clusters with the BLAST: the star
formation activity in Abell 3112
(Braglia, F. G. et al.
- X-ray : 1948 sources with XMM 0.2-4.5 keV fluxs from
The deep XMM-Newton Survey of M 31
(Stiele, H. et al.
- Radio : 598 sources with GMRT 153 MHz fluxes from
Deep low-frequency radio observations of the NOAO Bootes field. I. Data
reduction and catalog construction
(Intema, H. T. et al
- IR : 7284 sources with AKARI 2-24 microns fluxes from
The AKARI NEP-Deep survey: a mid-infrared source catalogue
(Takagi, T. et al.
- UV : Nearly 40,000,000 sources with GALEX NUV and/or FUV fluxes from
The GALEX All Sky Survey Catalog (GASC)
180 images from an atlas of CO emission from 18 nearby galaxies from
Heracles: The HERA CO Line Extragalactic Survey
(Leroy, A. K. et al.
59,615 spectra from
Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): survey diagnostics and core data
(Driver, S. P. et al.
NOTE: If you would like to have your FITS image or spectral data
become available for use by other researchers via NED, please
leave a comment
with your name and email address so that we may contact you.
Cluster Systems: A New Perspective on Galaxy Formation and
(Markus Kissler-Patig, 2000RvMA...13...13K)
and the Fueling of Starbursts
(J.E. Hibbard, 1997AIPC..393..259H)
(C. L. Carilli and G. B. Taylor, 2002ARA&A..40..319C)
The Local Group:
Inventory and History
(Eline Tolstoy, 2011ASPC..445..463T)
(Isaac Shlosman, 2012arXiv1212.1463S)
Bayes in the Sky:
Bayesian Inference and Model Selection in Cosmology
(Roberto Trotta, 2008ConPh..49...71T)
Simulations of Dwarf Galaxy Evolution
(Simone Recchi, 2013arXiv1310.4932R)
(Alberto D. Bolato et al., 2013ARA&A..51..207B)
Introduction to NED has more details about all of NED's
services, and NED's Features
gives a brief overview of NED.
The NED History page has
previous NED news.