Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 1988. 26:
561-630
Copyright © 1988 by . All rights reserved |

**9.4. The Time Test of the Standard Model**

Of the four tests discussed earlier
[*N*(*z*), *N*(*m*), *m*(*z*),
(*z*)], the time
test for *q*_{0} is the only experiment devoid of direct
evolutionary effects, making it the most promising (at the moment) to
find *q*_{0} (or
_{0}
if _{0} =
0). Adopting *H*_{0} = 42 ± 11 km s^{-1}
Mpc^{-1} and *T*_{0} = 14.9 ± 2 Gyr
(Sandage 1988a)
gives

which is the close to the required 2/3 if
_{0} = +
1. The formal solution is

(57) |

where the formal errors depend mostly on the large assigned error to
*H*_{0}. If we assign a smaller error and adopt
*H*_{0} = 42 ± 6, then

Although the errors are still very large, there is now, for the first
time, the astronomical possibility that
_{0} = 1
exactly, required by
the inflationary cosmology of Grand Unification. It must be
emphasized, however, that no claim is made here from the available
data that _{0}
*is* 1, only that it is now possible that it
could be so if
*H*_{0} can be reduced, as here, to 42 and
*T*_{0} shortened by ~ 15% below 17
Gyr. This does give agreement with the inflationary prediction from
the time-scale test, whereas the earlier literature values on ages did not.

Equation 31 shows that the price to be paid is to believe that at least 99% of the matter in the Universe is dark. Such dark matter has not yet been detected, and its existence must remain an article of faith for the true believer in the standard model and its covering theory of Grand Unification.