Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 1988. 26: 561-630
Copyright © 1988 by . All rights reserved

Reprinted with kind permission from , 4139 El Camino Way, Palo Alto, California, USA

For a PDF version of the article, click here.
For a Postscript version of the article, click here.


OBSERVATIONAL TESTS OF WORLD MODELS

Allan Sandage


Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University,
Baltimore, Maryland 21218 and Space Telescope Science Institute,
3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (1)


Table of Contents

THE ELEMENTS OF PRACTICAL COSMOLOGY

EXPERIMENTAL GEOMETRY
The Necessity for Space Curvature
The Idea of Geometrical Experiments
Line Lengths and Areas on a Sphere of Constant Curvature
The Volume V(r) in Robertson-Walker Spaces

COUNT-REDSHIFT RELATION
The Coordinate r as a Function of Redshift
The Predicted K(z, q0) Relation

THE REDSHIFT-MAGNITUDE EQUATION
The Predicted Hubble Diagram With No Luminosity Evolution
Conversion of Observed Heterochromatic Apparent Magnitude to the Apparent Bolometric Scale: The K Correction
The Predicted Hubble Diagram With Correction for Luminosity Evolution
The Look-Back Time as a Function of A and q0

PREDICTED AND OBSERVED COUNT-MAGNITUDE RELATION
Method of Predicting N(m, q0, E) for an Infinitely Narrow Luminosity Function
The Full Complication of the N(m, q0, E) Prediction, Given E(z) and the Luminosity Function Phi(M, T)
Observations

THE m(z) HUBBLE DIAGRAM
Local Tests for Linearity of the Redshift - Distance Relation
The Hubble Diagram at Large Redshifts

NONGEOMETRICAL EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION IN THE LOOK-BACK TIME
Changes in Spectral Energy Distribution With Redshift
Changes in Morphological Mix
Reassessment of the N(m) Count Evidence for Luminosity Evolution at z > 0.5
Evolution Inferred From Quasar Counts

ANGULAR DIAMETER OF RIGID RODS
The Standard Model
Diameters of First-Ranked Cluster Galaxies at Low Redshift
High-Redshift Data

TIME-SCALE TEST
The Standard Model Prediction
The Value of T0 From the Chemical Elements and From the Oldest Stars
Value of H0
The Time Test of the Standard Model

REFERENCES



1 Presently at Mount Wilson Observatory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, California 91101. Back.

Next