PASJ Review Paper, in press.
https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.08350

For a PDF version of the article, click here.

ROTATION AND MASS IN THE MILKY WAY AND SPIRAL GALAXIES

Yoshiaki Sofue


Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, Mitaka, 181-0015 Tokyo


Abstract: Rotation curves are the basic tool for deriving the distribution of mass in spiral galaxies. In this review, we describe various methods to measure rotation curves in the Milky Way and spiral galaxies. We then describe two major methods to calculate the mass distribution using the rotation curve. By the direct method, the mass is calculated from rotation velocities without employing mass models. By the decomposition method, the rotation curve is deconvolved into multiple mass components by model fitting assuming a black hole, bulge, exponential disk and dark halo. The decomposition is useful for statistical correlation analyses among the dynamical parameters of the mass components. We also review recent observations and derived results.


Key words : Galaxy: fundamental parameters -- Galaxy: kinematics and dynamics -- Galaxy: structure -- galaxies: fundamental parameters -- galaxies: kinematics and dynamics -- galaxies: structure -- dark matter


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

ROTATION OF THE MILKY WAY
Dynamical Parameters Representing the Galaxy
Progress in the Galactic Rotation Curve
Methods to Determine the Galactic Rotation Curve
Rotation in the Galactic Center
Logarithmic Rotation Curve: From Black Hole to Dark Halo
Uncertainty and Limitation of Rotation Curve Analyses
Radial-Velocity and Proper-Motion Fields
Velocity-to-Space Transformation

ROTATION CURVES OF SPIRAL GALAXIES
Progress in Rotation Curve Studies Evidencing for the Dark Halo
Observations of Rotation Velocities
Methods to Determine Rotation Velocities
Galaxy Types and Rotation Curves
Dark Halo: Grand Rotation Curves
Nuclear Rotation Curves and Black Holes
Shapes of Rotation Curves and Galaxy Types
Statistical Properties of Rotation Curves: Tully-Fisher Relation
High Redshift Rotation Curves

MASS DISTRIBUTION IN DISK GALAXIES
Direct Mass Determination
Rotation Curve Decomposition into Mass Components
Rotation Curve Decomposition in the Milky Way
Decomposition of Galaxies' Rotation Curves

CONCLUDING REMARKS
Summary
Achievements in the Decades and the Future

REFERENCES

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