Published in Physics-Uspekhi, 48 (11), 1109-1127, 2005
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Translated by K.A. Postnov; edited by A.M. Semikhatov
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Abstract. Selected results obtained in major observational sky surveys (DSS, 2MASS, 2dF, SDSS) and deep field observations (HDF, GOODS, HUDF, etc.) are reviewed. Modern surveys provide information on the characteristics and space distribution of millions of galaxies. Deep fields allow one to study galaxies at the stage of formation and to trace their evolution over billions of years. The wealth of observational data is altering the face of modern astronomy: the formulation of problems and their solutions are changing and all the previous knowledge, from planetary studies in the solar system to the most distant galaxies and quasars, is being revised.
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