ARlogo Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 2009. 47: 159-210
Copyright © 2009 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved

Reprinted with kind permission from Annual Reviews, 4139 El Camino Way, Palo Alto, California, USA

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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND ENVIRONMENTS OF NEARBY GALAXIES

Michael R. Blanton and John Moustakas


Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics,
New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003

Abstract: We review the physical properties of nearby, relatively luminous galaxies, using results from newly available massive data sets together with more detailed observations. First, we present the global distribution of properties, including the optical and ultraviolet luminosity, stellar mass, and atomic gas mass functions. Second, we describe the shift of the galaxy population from "late" galaxy types in underdense regions to "early" galaxy types in overdense regions. We emphasize that the scaling relations followed by each galaxy type change very little with environment, with the exception of some minor but detectable effects. The shift in the population is apparent even at the densities of small groups and therefore cannot be exclusively due to physical processes operating in rich clusters. Third, we divide galaxies into four crude types - spiral, lenticular, elliptical, and merging systems - and describe some of their more detailed properties. We attempt to put these detailed properties into the global context provided by large surveys.


Table of Contents

NEW WINDOWS ON THE NEARBY UNIVERSE

A GLOBAL VIEW OF GALAXY PROPERTIES
Optical broad-band measurements
Optical spectroscopic measurements
Luminosity and stellar mass functions
Systematic effects in luminosity functions
Environmental dependence
Exceptions to environmental trends

SPIRAL GALAXIES
General description and identification
Quantitative morphological measures
Bulges, pseudobulges, and bars
Atomic and molecular gas content
Star formation
Dust content
Chemical history
Disk edges and extended galactic disks
Tully-Fisher relation

LENTICULARS

ELLIPTICALS
General description and identification
Structural trends
Nuclear properties
Fundamental plane and dynamics
Brightest cluster galaxies and cD galaxies
Deviations from smooth profiles
Stellar populations
Cold gas content

INTERACTIONS, MERGERS, STARBURSTS, AND POST-STARBURSTS

DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

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