Lectures given at Post-Planck Cosmology, Ecole de
Physique des Houches, Les Houches, July 8-Aug 2, 2013, eds. B. Wandelt,
C. Deffayet, P. Peter, to be published by Oxford University Press, and
New Horizons for Observational Cosmology, International School of
Physics Enrico Fermi, Varenna, July 1-6, 2013, eds. A. Melchiorri,
A. Cooray, E. Komatsu, to be published by the Italian Society of Physics.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1312.5490

For a PDF version of the article, click here.

# LARGE SCALE STRUCTURE OBSERVATIONS

### Will J. Percival

Institute of
Cosmology and Gravitation,
University of
Portsmouth,

Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, P01 3FX, UK

**Abstract:**
Galaxy Surveys are enjoying a renaissance thanks to the advent of
multi-object spectrographs on ground-based telescopes. The last 15
years have seen the fruits of this experimental advance, including
the 2-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS;
Colless
*et al.* 2003)
and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS;
York *et al.*
2000).
Most recently, the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS;
Dawson
*et al.* 2013),
part of the SDSS-III project
(Eisenstein
*et al.* 2011),
has provided the largest
volume of the low-redshift Universe ever surveyed with a galaxy
density useful for high-precision cosmology. This set of lecture
notes looks at some of the physical processes that underpin these
measurements, the evolution of measurements themselves, and looks
ahead to the next 15 years and the advent of surveys such as the
enhanced Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS), the Dark
Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) and the ESA Euclid satellite
mission.

**Table of Contents**

- CLUSTERING STATISTICS
- The over-density field
- The correlation function
- The power spectrum
- Higher order statistics
- Anisotropic statistics

- THE COMOVING MATTER POWER SPECTRUM
- The matter-radiation equality scale
- Neutrino masses
- Baryons

- PHYSICAL PROCESSES
- Linear structure growth
- Spherical collapse
- Press-Schechter theory
- Galaxy bias

- GALAXY SURVEY BASICS
- Overview of galaxy surveys
- Measuring over-densities
- Measuring the power spectrum
- Measuring the correlation function
- Reconstructing the linear density
- Ly-a forest surveys

- OBSERVATIONAL EFFECTS
- Projection and the Alcock-Paczynski effect
- Redshift-space distortions
- Joint AP and RSD measurements
- Primordial non-Gaussianity
- Summary

- MAKING COSMOLOGICAL-MODEL INFERENCES
- Exploring parameter space
- Model selection

- FUTURE SURVEYS
- The next 5 years
- 5-20 years time
- Fisher methods
- Predictions for future surveys

- REFERENCES