Published in Helvetica Physica Acta, Vol. 6, p. 110-127, 1933.

For a German language PDF version of the article, click here.

THE REDSHIFT OF EXTRAGALACTIC NEBULAE

(Die Rotverschiebung von extragalaktischen Nebeln)

Fritz Zwicky


(Translated by H. Andernach (heavily editing a raw translation from https://tradukka.com/translate)


Abstract: This gives a description of the most essential characteristics of extragalactic nebulae, as well as of the methods used to investigate these. In particular, the so-called redshift of extragalactic nebulae is discussed in detail. Various theories which have been proposed to explain this important phenomenon, are briefly discussed. Finally, it will be indicated to what extent the redshift promises to become of importance for the study of cosmic rays.


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

DISTANCES AND GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EXTRAGALACTIC NEBULAE
Distance Determination with the help of the Period-Brightness Relationship for Cepheids
Statistics of the brightest stars of a nebula
Distance determination of nebulae using their total apparent magnitude

THE REDSHIFT OF EXTRAGALACTIC NEBULA. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DISTANCE AND REDSHIFT

SPECULATIONS CONCERNING THE REDSHIFT
Cosmological theories
Direct influence of existing matter in space on the frequency of light

COMMENTS ON THE VELOCITY DISPERSION IN THE COMA CLUSTER OF NEBULAE

COSMIC RAYS AND REDSHIFTS



Special terms were interpreted as follows:

- Nebel = nebula (not galaxy, to preserve the original flavor of the text)

- Fluchtgeschwindigkeit = recession velocity (not escape velocity, as there is no escape here...)

- Perioden-Helligkeits-Beziehung = Period-Brightness Relationship (not period-luminosity, to preserve the original word "Helligkeit")

- penetrating radiation = cosmic rays

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