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What then was wrong with Hubble's 1936 analysis of the count data in Fig. 1 that led him to his remarkable conclusion of no expansion?

There were five problems. (1) Incorrect K term values as a function of redshift because galaxy spectra have a much cooler color temperature than 6000°. (2) The apparent magnitude scale used by Hubble via the Selected Area magnitudes, even as partially corrected by Baade in the late 1930s, was wrong. (3) Hubble's assumption that "distance" is given by cz/H for large redshifts is not correct, but known only after the Mattig revolution (section 4). (4) The assumption that uniform spatial distribution requires log N(m) to increase as ~ 0.6 m for large redshifts is also wrong according to the theory of Friedmann spaces, again shown by the new Mattig equations. (5) The assumption of constant luminosity and/or density evolution at high redshifts is evidently wrong as shown by the large excess in the counts (a fact that would have been discovered by Hubble from his counts if he had kept the true expansion assumption) shown not only by the modern N(m) counts, but also by the strange galaxy morphology at the faintest HST levels (section 7).

These points are reviewed in order.

3.1. Enter Greenstein

The 1936 analysis by Hubble had already begun to unravel by a devastating paper by Greenstein (1938), in which he showed that the color temperature of M31 was only 4200° K rather than 6000°. Shifting a black body spectrum through the mpg pass bands gave selective K corrections plus either one or two factors of 2.5 log (1 + z) that were no where near the B = 2.94 determined from the "departure" observations by Hubble. Hence, nothing worked in any interpretation of Hubble's 1936b counts. Greenstein's conclusion was: "From lambda6500 to 3900 Å, [the spectrum of M31] closely resembles that of a black body of temperature 4200°. - The effect of such low temperatures on the present interpretation of counts of extragalactic nebulae is serious. It seems improbable that the effect of the redshift on the apparent magnitudes of nebulae, found by Hubble, can be interpreted either as a velocity or as a nonvelocity shift."

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