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In this review I presented a summary of the state-of-the-art for what concerns the chemo-dynamical modelling of galaxies in general and of dwarf galaxies in particular. I have devoted one Section for each of the main ingredients of a realistic simulation of a galaxy, namely: (i) initial conditions (Sect. 2); (ii) the equations to solve (Sect. 3); (iii) the star formation process (Sect. 4); (iv) the initial mass function (Sect. 5); (v) the chemical feedback (Sect. 6); (vi) the mechanical feedback (Sect. 7); (vii) the environmental effects (Sect. 8). In each section, commonly adopted methodologies and recipes have been introduced and some key results of past or ongoing studies have been summarised. Moreover, some key results concerning the development of galactic winds and the fate of heavy elements, freshly synthesised after an episode of star formation, have been summarised in Sect. 9.

Throughout this review, I outlined topics, physical processes and ingredients that in my opinion are not properly or adequately treated in modern simulations of galaxy evolution. I summarise below the topics that in my opinion deserve more attention:


The Guest Editors of this special issue of Advances in Astronomy are warmly thanked for having allowed me to write this review paper. Many thanks to Annibale D'Ercole and Gerhard Hensler for a careful reading of the manuscript and for very useful suggestions and corrections. Many thanks also to Francesco Calura, Pavel Kroupa, Nigel Mitchell, Sylvia Plöckinger and Eduard Vorobyov for having read sections of this review and for having provided very useful comments. My wife, Sonja Recchi is finally warmly thanked for a careful English proof-reading.

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