Published in The First Galaxies, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, Volume 396. ISBN 978-3-642-32361-4. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2013, p. 45.

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Saleem Zaroubi

Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Landleven 12, 9747AD Groningen, The Netherlands
Physics Department, The Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel

Abstract: The Universe's dark ages end with the formation of the first generation of galaxies. These objects start emitting ultraviolet radiation that carves out ionized regions around them. After a sufficient number of ionizing sources have formed, the ionized fraction of the gas in the Universe rapidly increases until hydrogen becomes fully ionized. This period, during which the cosmic gas went from neutral to ionized, is known as the Universe's Epoch of Reionization . The Epoch of Reionization is related to many fundamental questions in cosmology, such as properties of the first galaxies, physics of (mini-)quasars, formation of very metal-poor stars and a slew of other important research topics in astrophysics. Hence uncovering it will have far reaching implications on the study of structure formation in the early Universe. This chapter reviews the current observational evidence for the occurrence of this epoch, its key theoretical aspects and main characteristics, and finally the various observational probes that promise to uncover it. A special emphasis is put on the redshifted 21 cm probe, the various experiments that are currently being either built or designed, and what we can learn from them about the Epoch of Reionization.

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