PhD. Thesis, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. 1977

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INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF GALAXIES

A Thesis presented by
Marc Aaronson
to
the Department of Astronomy
in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
in the subject of
Astronomy
Harvard University
Cambridge, Massachusetts
August, 1977


Acknowledgements

The data in this thesis could not have been obtained without the aid of a truly vast number of people. I would especially like to thank:

Sallie Baliunas, Phil Marcus, and Steve Perrenod for allowing themselves to be dragged out to Arizona;

Les Wier and the guys in the machine shop for their prompt help when it was really needed, Chip in the shock tube lab for the many leak checks, Bill Grimm for the EE lessons and the pre-amp drawings, John Hamwey and the powers that be for all the wonderful figures, Gerda Schrauwen for the fine tables, Helen Beattie for her good nature, and particularly Val for working overtime during the '75 World Series;

Doug Kleinmann for crucial assistance on the light baffle and external focusing mechanism, the nifty neck tube support, and helpful discussions;

Keith Matthews for discovering (and communicating to me) the wondrous black magic of flashing;

Alex, Al, Herb, Nat, Bob, Peter, Leslie, Vivian, and Ruth for putting up with me and always coming up with the money from somewhere;

John Huchra for obtaining some precious UBV data and for much stimulating conversation;

Bas and Daryl at MHO for the glorious kluges, and also the (too) numerous night assistants at LC, CTIO, and KPNO;

Bruce Carney for allowing me to squeeze in some galaxy measurements during his telescope time, and for his general goad spirits;

John Mariska for the dart games and for always being a fine source of gossip;

John Danziger and Chris McKee for your early and far too brief support;

Giovani Fazio for having the nerve to became my thesis adviser after the four previous occupants of the job left the Center - his suggestions, encouragement, and support are much appreciated.

Finally, to Eric Persson and Jay Frogel, who more than anyone have taught me the meaning of being an observational astronomer, and who are the guiding lights of this work, thanks seen hardly sufficient.

And to whatever deity sent me only 30% photometric weather far the past two years in Arizona - (expletive deleted)!


Table of Contents

I. INTRODUCTION

II. CO AND JHK OBSERVATIONS OF E AND S0 GALAXIES
Introduction
Observational Procedures and Data Reduction
a) Equipment
b) Galaxy Observations
c) Sources of Error and Instrumental Corrections
d) Sources of V Data
e) Reddening and K-corrections
f) Comparisons with Previous CO Measurements
g) Globular Cluster Observations
Discussion of the Galaxy Observations
a) The Dependence of Color and CO Index on Radius
b) Integrated Properties of the Galaxies
c) Summary and Conclusions
Discussion of the Globular Cluster Observations
Comparison of Mean Colors with Stellar Synthesis Models
Comparison with Photometric Studies at < 1.0
a) The Work of O'Connell
b) The Work of McClure and van den Bergh and of Faber
Summary and conclusions
Appendix
References

III. OBSERVATIONS OF H2O ABSORPTION AND THE COOLEST STELLAR COMPONENT OF E AND S0 GALAXIES
Introduction
Observations
The stellar data
Discussion of the Galaxy and Globular Cluster Data
References

IV. INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF BRIGHT GALAXIES ALONG THE HUBBLE SEQUENCE
Introduction
Observations and Data Reduction
a) Equipment
b) Galaxy Selection
c) Observational Procedure
d) Photometric Errors and Instrumental Corrections
e) The UVK Colors
f) Reddening and Redshift Corrections
g) Comparison with Previous Results
Results
a) Color-Aperture Relations
b) Integrated Properties
c) Color-Inclination Relations
d) Color-Absolute Magnitude Relations
e) Color-Color Relationships
Discussion
a) Integrated Colors
b) Color Gradients
Non-Stellar Effects
a) Dust Absorption
b) Dust Emission
c) Gaseous Emission
d) Non-Thermal Emission
e) Discussion
Comparison with Stellar Synthesis Models
Summary
Appendix A. The Stellar Calibration
Appendix B. The InSb Detector System
Appendix C. Metallicity Calibration and the V - K Color
References

V. IDENTIFICATION OF THE NUCLEUS IN THE SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 4631
Introduction
Observations
Discussion
References

VI. CLOSING THOUGHTS

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