Published in Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 86, Issue 1, pp. 47-119, 2014.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.3276

For a PDF version of the article, click here.

GALAXY MASSES

Stéphane Courteau a, Michele Cappellari b, Roelof S. de Jong c, Aaron A. Dutton d, Eric Emsellem e, Henk Hoekstra f, L.V.E. Koopmans g, Gary A. Mamon h, Claudia Maraston i, Tommaso Treu j, Lawrence M. Widrow a


a Queen's University, Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
b Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UK
c Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany
d Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
e European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748, Germany and Université Lyon 1, Observatoire de Lyon, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon and Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 9 avenue Charles André, F-69230 Saint-Genis Laval, France
f Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
g University of Groningen, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, P.O.Box 800, 9700 AV, Groningen, The Netherlands
h Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris (UMR 7095: CNRS & UPMC), 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France
i University of Portsmouth, Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, UK
j University of California, Santa Barbara, Department of Physics, Santa Barbara, CA


Abstract: Galaxy masses play a fundamental role in our understanding of structure formation models. This review addresses the variety and reliability of mass estimators that pertain to stars, gas, and dark matter. The different sections on masses from stellar populations, dynamical masses of gas-rich and gas-poor galaxies, with some attention paid to our Milky Way, and masses from weak and strong lensing methods, all provide review material on galaxy masses in a self-consistent manner.


Keywords: galaxies: dark matter — galaxies: evolution — galaxies: formation


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

FROM LIGHT TO MASS: MODELLING THE STELLAR M* / L RATIO
Modelling galaxies and their Stellar Populations, a Historical Introduction
Basics of Stellar Population Models
Stellar Mass from M* / L vs Colour Diagnostics
Effect of Star Formation History
Stellar Initial Mass Function
Model ingredients
Data Fitting Techniques
Robustness of Stellar Mass Derivations
Future Prospects

DYNAMICAL MASSES OF GAS-RICH GALAXIES
Mass Estimates from Rotation Curves
Inner Parts
Mass Modeling
Mass Modeling Limitations
Other Galaxy Mass Constraints
Maximal and Sub-maximal Disks
Velocity Dispersion Measurements
Scaling Relations Residuals
Fluid Dynamical Modeling
Gravitational Lensing
Two-body Interactions and the Mass of the Local Group
Future Prospects

DARK MATTER AND MASS MODELS OF THE MILKY WAY
Introduction
Multicomponent Models for the Milky Way
Further Observational Constraints on the Milky Way Potential
Circular Speed at the Sun's Position in the Galaxy
Local Escape Speed
Kinematic Tracers
Vertical Force and Surface Density in the Solar Neighborhood
Future Prospects

DYNAMICAL MASSES OF GAS-POOR GALAXIES
Introduction
Simple Mass Estimators
Methods based on Dynamical Modelling
Jeans Analysis
Spherical Modelling
Axisymmetric Modelling
Distribution Function Analysis
Spherical Distribution Function Modelling
Towards Flattened Systems
General Orbit-based Modelling
Results
Integrated Stellar Light: the Inner Regions and the IMF
Globular Clusters and Planetary Nebulae: the Outer Regions
Other Tracers and Combined Approaches
The Mass-Anisotropy Degeneracy
Discrete Star Velocities for Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies
Future Prospects

WEAK LENSING BY GALAXIES
Introduction
Theory of Weak Lensing
Shear
Magnification
Galaxy-Mass Cross-Correlation Function
Properties of Dark Matter Halos
Halo Shapes
Future Prospects

THE DARK AND LUMINOUS MASS DISTRIBUTION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES
Introduction
Basic Lensing Theory
The Thin-Lens Approximation
The Lens Equation
Axisymmetric Lenses
Lensing & Stellar Dynamics
Observational Results
Sloan Lens ACS Survey (SLACS)
The Density Profiles of Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs)
The Stellar IMF and Dark Matter Fraction in ETGs
Mass Substructure in ETGs
Luminous Dwarf Galaxies
Dark Substructures
Future Prospects

REFERENCES

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