Published in 2002, Physics Reports, Volume 369, Issue 2, p. 111-176.
astro-ph/0406143

For a PDF version of the article, click here.


SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

Andrew W. Blain a, b, 1, Ian Smail c, R. J. Ivison d, J.-P. Kneib e, David T. Frayer f


a Department of Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena CA 91125, USA
b Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
c Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
d Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK
e Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, 14 Avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France
f SIRTF Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena CA 91125, USA


Abstract. A cosmologically significant population of very luminous high-redshift galaxies has recently been discovered at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths. Advances in submm detector technologies have opened this new window on the distant Universe. Here we discuss the properties of the high-redshift submm galaxies, their significance for our understanding of the process of galaxy formation, and the selection effects that apply to deep submm surveys. The submm galaxies generate a significant fraction of the energy output of all the galaxies in the early Universe. We emphasize the importance of studying a complete sample of submm galaxies, and stress that because they are typically very faint in other wavebands, these follow-up observations are very challenging. Finally, we discuss the surveys that will be made using the next generation of submm-wave instruments under development.


Keywords: Dust: extinction, Cosmology: observations, Galaxies: evolution, Galaxies: formation, gravitational lensing, Radio continuum: galaxies


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

SUBMM-WAVE EMISSION FROM GALAXIES
The power source for dusty galaxies
Continuum emission from dust
The observed SEDs of dusty galaxies
Line emission
The observability of high-redshift dusty galaxies
Submm-wave selection effects
Deep submm-wave surveys
Submm observations of known high-redshift galaxies and QSOs
Alternative strategy for deep submm surveys
Determining redshifts of submm galaxies

THE OBSERVED PROPERTIES OF SUBMM-SELECTED GALAXIES
Confusion
Multi-waveband follow-up studies
A gallery of follow-up results
Clustering properties

SUBMM GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER POPULATIONS
Optically-selected Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs)
Extremely Red Objects (EROs)
Faint radio galaxies
Active galaxies and X-ray sources
Gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies
Prospects for the follow-up observations in the future

MODELING THE EVOLUTION OF SUBMM GALAXIES
An array of possible treatments
Observational tests of models
Modeling the detailed astrophysics of the submm galaxies
The global evolution of dust-enshrouded galaxies

GRAVITATIONAL LENSING IN THE SUBMM WAVEBAND
Magnification bias
Conditions for exploiting submm lensing by galaxies
Prospects for the lensing studies in the future

FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN SUBMM COSMOLOGY
New technologies for instrumentation
New telescopes
Future capabilities and progress

SUMMARY: KEY QUESTIONS AND TARGETS FOR THE FUTURE

REFERENCES



1 Corresponding author. E-mail: awb@astro.caltech.edu. Back.

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