Published in Physics Reports, Volume 541, Issue 2, p. 45-161., 2014.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1402.1456

For a PDF version of the article, click here.

DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT

Caitlin M. Casey 1,2, Desika Narayanan 3, Asantha Cooray 1


1 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697
2 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822
3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, PA 19041


Abstract: Far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength surveys have now established the important role of dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) in the assembly of stellar mass and the evolution of massive galaxies in the Universe. The brightest of these galaxies have infrared luminosities in excess of 1013 L with implied star-formation rates of thousands of solar masses per year. They represent the most intense starbursts in the Universe, yet many are completely optically obscured. Their easy detection at submm wavelengths is due to dust heated by ultraviolet radiation of newly forming stars. When summed up, all of the dusty, star-forming galaxies in the Universe produce an infrared radiation field that has an equal energy density as the direct starlight emission from all galaxies visible at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. The bulk of this infrared extragalactic background light emanates from galaxies as diverse as gas-rich disks to mergers of intense starbursting galaxies. Major advances in far-infrared instrumentation in recent years, both space-based and ground-based, has led to the detection of nearly a million DSFGs, yet our understanding of the underlying astrophysics that govern the start and end of the dusty starburst phase is still in nascent stage. This review is aimed at summarizing the current status of DSFG studies, focusing especially on the detailed characterization of the best-understood subset (submillimeter galaxies, who were summarized in the last review of this field over a decade ago, Blain et al. 2002), but also the selection and characterization of more recently discovered DSFG populations. We review DSFG population statistics, their physical properties including dust, gas and stellar contents, their environments, and current theoretical models related to the formation and evolution of these galaxies.


Keywords : Galaxies, Cosmology, Galaxy evolution, Galaxy formation, Infrared galaxies


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

SELECTION OF DISTANT INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES
Local Infrared-Luminous Galaxies
The very negative K-correction
Dusty Galaxy Selection from ~ 8-2000 µm
Facilities and Instruments Discovering high- z DSFGs
Notable surveys focused on DSFG Discovery
Selection biases and Sensitivity
Intrinsic Variation in SEDs
Identifying Multi-wavelength Counterparts
DSFG Multiplicity

SUBMILLIMETER NUMBER COUNTS
Confusion Noise
Using Monte Carlo Simulations in Number Counts Analysis
Estimating Deboosted Flux Densities
Estimating Positional Accuracy
Estimating Sample Contamination & Completeness
Number Counts
Parametrizing Number Counts
Bright-End Counts: Gravitationally Lensed DSFGs
The Cosmic Infrared Background and P(D) Analysis

REDSHIFTS AND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES
Acquiring Spectroscopic or Photometric Redshifts
Millimetric Spectroscopic Redshifts
Millimetric Photometric Redshifts
Redshift Distributions of 24 µm selected DSFG populations
Redshift Distributions of 850 µm-1.4 mm-selected DSFG populations
Redshift Distributions of 250 µm-500 mm-selected DSFG populations
Infrared SED Fitting for DSFGs
Employing dust radiative transfer models and empirical templates
Direct modified blackbody SED modeling
Estimating LIR, Tdust and Mdust from an SED
Luminosity Functions
Contribution to Cosmic Star Formation Rate Density

PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION
Star Formation History & Dynamical Time
Dust Characterization
Stellar Masses
Stellar IMF
Rest-frame Ultraviolet & Optical Spectral Characterization
AGN Content
Mid-Infrared Diagnostics
Mid-Infrared Spitzer-selected Populations
Kinematics
Physical Size and Morphology
Relationship to Normal Galaxies: the Infrared Main Sequence
The FIR/Radio Correlation

DETAILED STUDIES OF INDIVIDUAL DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES
SMM J02399-0136
SMM J2135-0102: the Cosmic Eyelash
GN20
Lensed DSFGs
Highest redshift DSFGs
HDF850.1
J1148+5251
AzTEC-3
HFLS3
HLS J0918+5142
SPT 0346-52

CLUSTERING AND ENVIRONMENT
Environments of DSFGs
Clustering of DSFGs
Clustering of Faint, Unresolved DSFGs through the CIB Anisotropy Power Spectrum
Cosmic Magnification of Submm Sources
DSFGs as a tracer of the CMB lensing potential

MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION
Basic Definitions
Deriving H2 Gas Masses from High-Redshift Galaxies
Star Formation Laws and Efficiencies
The Role of Dense Molecular Gas
Physics Learned from the Milky Way and Local Galaxies
Dense Gas at High-Redshift
CO Excitation and Spectral Line Energy Distributions
Molecular Gas Fractions
Molecular Gas Morphology and Dynamics
Synthesis

ATOMIC LINES
The [CII]-FIR deficit in Galaxies
[CII] as a Star Formation Rate Indicator
[CII] Morphologies and Dynamics

THE THEORY OF FORMING DUSTY GALAXIES
Overview of Dusty Galaxy Modeling Methods
Semi-Analytic Models
Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations
Idealized and Hybrid Models
Empirical Methods
Main Results from Theories of Dusty Galaxies
Semi-Analytic Methods
Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations
Idealized and Hybrid Simulations
Testable Predictions and Key Differences between Models

FUTURE DIRECTIONS

GLOSSARY OF DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXY ACRONYMS

REFERENCES

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