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Chapter 2. The Extragalactic Distance Scale

2.1. Overview

2.2. Possible Kinds of Cosmological Models

2.3. Establishing the Extragalactic Distance Scale
2.3.1. The First Rung: Calibrating the Main Sequence Luminosities of Stars via Stellar Parallax
2.3.2. The Second Rung: Distances to stellar clusters
2.3.3. The Third Rung: Determining the Zeropoints of Standard Candles
2.3.4. Distances to Local Group Galaxies
2.3.5. Extragalactic Distance Indicators
2.3.6. The Distance to the Virgo Cluster
2.3.7. Correction for Bias in Extragalactic Samples
2.3.8. Hubble Space Telescope Distance Estimates to Virgo
2.3.9. Summary of Virgo Distance Estimates
2.3.10. Direct Astrophysical Distance Measurements